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Diabetes and Tuberculosis: Review of Articles in Nursing

Article 1

Trends in Prevalence and Control of Diabetes in the United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2010 by Selvin, Parrinello, Sacks, and Coresh (2014)

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Objectives

The study seeks to evaluate the trends associated with various types of diabetes in the United States. Selvin, Parrinello, Sacks, and Coresh (2014) sought to analyze trends in the prevalence of diabetes, predabetes, and glycemic control. Specifically, the study carried out a survey of incidences reported between 1988 and 1994 and 1999 and 2010.

Methods

The study carried out by Selvin et al. (2014) made use of a cross-sectional research approach. It was conducted using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The cross-sectional approach was based on the surveys carried out between 1988 and 1994 and 1999 and 2010 (Selvin et al., 2014). The participants in the two surveys were all adults above the age of 20.

Cross-sectional approaches are used with the aim of measuring a given phenomenon that is under investigation. Selvin et al. (2014) relied on calibrated Hba1c levels in a bid to define undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes, and glycemic control. Trends based on these measurements were compared against the levels of glucose among the participants who were fasting.

Results

The survey carried out between 1999 and 2010 found that 21 million adults had diabetes. According to Selvin et al. (2014), this number represented those diagnosed on the basis of the comparison between fasting and calibrated levels. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was stable. The figures represented an 11% decrease in the cases of undiagnosed diabetes in the period between 2005 and 2010. The study established a significant link between prediabetes and HbA1c . It was found that the occurrence of the condition was reduced when HbA1c was used. There was improved glycemic control. However, the prevalence of diabetes was high among non-Hispanic whites.

Article 2

Associations between Trends in Race/Ethnicity, Aging, and Body Mass Index with Diabetes Prevalence in the United States by Menke, Rust, Fradkin, Cheng, and Cowie (2014)

Objectives of the Study

The study was carried out to analyze the increase in the prevalence of diabetes in the United States. Menke, Rust, Fradkin, Cheng, and Cowie (2014) observed that the occurrence of this disease corresponded to an increase in various risk factors. Such factors included changes in race distribution and a rise in obesity rates. In this regard, Menke et al. (2014) sought to establish the link between an increase in the prevalence of diabetes and changing race distribution patterns, age, and susceptibility to obesity.

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Methods Used in the Study

The study made use of a cross-sectional technique to evaluate data from 5 different surveys conducted by NHANES. Menke et al. (2014) relied on data from NHANES II (between 1976 and 1980) and NHANES III (between 1988 and 1944). The other three surveys were carried out between 1999 and 2000, 2003 and 2006, and 2007 and 2010 (Menke et al., 2014). The study involved 23,932 participants between the ages of 20 and 74. Menke et al. (2014) defined diabetes as a self-diagnosis phenomenon. They based their readings on 7.0 mmol/L of glucose.

Results of the Study

The data from NHANES II and III found a 6.5% increase in the prevalence of diabetes among male participants. Menke et al. (2014) found that within the same period, the incidences of this condition among the female participants increased by a margin of 3%. The researchers made adjustments for age, race, and body mass index (BMI). Consequently, an increase in prevalence was observed among the male population (3.4%). The study found that BMI was the greatest contributor to the occurrence of this condition (Menke et al., 2014).

Article 3

Prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes and their Risk Factors among Bangladeshi Adults: A Nationwide Survey by Akter, Rahman, Krull, and Sultana (2014)

Objectives

The prevalence of diabetes prevalence is evaluated on the basis of risk factors like age and BMI. In this regard, Akter, Rahman, Krull, and Sultana (2014) sought to identify the specific risk factors that affect diabetes and prediabetes in Bangladesh. The study made use of data from a national survey.

Methods

The national survey was used to provide sociodemographic and anthropometric data. According to Akter et al. (2014), the surveys provided relevant information touching on blood glucose and pressure levels. A total of 7541 adults took part in the survey (Akter et al. 2014). The risk factors were determined with the help of a statistical analysis. To this end, the researchers used multilevel logistic regression approach. Adjustments were made for the clustering that is common in homes and communities.

Results

The results were obtained after a series of adjustments. For instance, age-based adjustments revealed prevalence levels of 9.7% and 22.4%. According to Akter et al. (2014), the incidences of this condition among urban residents were found to be 15.2%. The survey carried out in the rural settings found an 8.3% prevalence rate. Akter et al. (2014) point out that 56% of all diabetics in the survey were not aware of their condition. In addition, 39.5 percent of the population was under routine medication.

The study found that age is a key determinant of diabetes. Akter et al. (2014) observed that susceptibility to this condition among people aged 55-59 years was higher than those between 35 and 39 years. Participants from households with high incomes had higher susceptibility levels compared to those from poor families. Educational levels, existing conditions, and body weight were also found to contribute towards onset of diabetes.

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Article 4

Diabetes and Hypertension Prevalence in Homeless Adults in the United States: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by Bernstein, Meurer, Plumb, and Jackson (2015)

Objectives

Cases of diabetes and hypertension among the homeless community in the United States are on the rise. Bernstein, Meurer, Plumb, and Jackson (2015) sought to analyze this phenomenon. Bernstein et al. (2015) found a wide variety of literature touching on the prevalence of diabetes in general. In this regard, the researchers came up with primary and secondary objectives to evaluate the prevalence of diabetes among the homeless community. The primary objective was to determine the incidence of this disease between 1980 and 2014. The four secondary objectives are as follows:

  1. To compare the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in the United States.
  2. To evaluate the rate of prevalence for both diabetes and hypertension between 1980 and 2014.
  3. To explain the variations reported in the estimates of the two health conditions in the United States

Methods

The study is a review of existing literature touching on the prevalence rates for diabetes and hypertension. Bernstein et al. (2015) made use of the Preferred Reporting for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Data for the study was obtained from a series of articles sourced from various medical journals. According to Bernstein et al. (2015), information pertaining to diabetes was obtained from Medline and PsyschINFO.

Results

Bernstein et al. (2015) found that 39 studies provided information on self-reported diabetes among homeless persons. The prevalence rate stood at 8%. According to Bernstein et al. (2015), seven studies evaluated diabetes based on physiological aspects. Findings of these studies reveal that prevalence of diabetes stood at 12.4%. The combined literature review showed that age and physiological measures were key determinants of the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension.

Article 5

Differences by Sex in the Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus, Impaired Fasting Glycaemia, and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis by Hilawe, Yatsuya, Kawaguchi, and Aoyoma (2013)

Objectives of the Study

In Sub-Saharan Africa, gender, fasting glycaemia, and impaired glucose tolerance are major factors behind the prevalence of diabetes. Hilawe, Yatsuya, Kawaguchi, and Aoyoma (2013) carried out the study with the objective of evaluating the occurrence of diabetes mellitus among men and women in this part of the world. The study sought to find out the differences between the prevalence of the disease among two focus groups. To this end, Hilawe et al. (2013) evaluated this phenomenon based on impaired glucose tolerance in the two clusters.

Methods Used in the Study

The study employed a cross-sectional research technique. Hilawe et al. (2013) relied on PubMed and Web of Science databases to access literature on the subject. It is noted that most of the information in the studies reviewed by Hilawe et al. (2013) was obtained from community-based surveys conducted in the region. Hilawe et al. (2013) established sex-prevalence levels based on the three conditions identified for this study. Computations of these occurrences were carried out using the random effects model.

Results Obtained

It is noted that the study by Hilawe et al. (2013) was developed from a meta-analysis of 36 data sets. It was found that impaired fasting glycaemia was more prevalent among men compared to females (Hilawe et al. 2013). In addition, the analysis established varying levels of threshold in relation to impaired glucose. To this end, females fared worse than males. However, instances of diabetes mellitus were similar among both men and women. In addition, the prevalence was similar among men from East, Central, and South Africa. Male subjects reported increased incidences of impaired fasting glycaemia in comparison to female participants.

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Article 6

Journeys to Tuberculosis Treatment: A Qualitative Study of Patients, Families and Communities in Jogjakarta, Indonesia by Rintiswati et al. (2009)

The Purpose of the Study

The study was carried out against the backdrop of the high rates of Tuberculosis (TB) in Jogjakarta. A study of this nature is required to have a properly outlined purpose statement. However, Rintiswati et al. (2009) introduce their study without a specific purpose. As the topic of the journal article shows, the survey was an evaluation of prevalence rates of TB. Such a study must clearly outline its purpose in a structured manner. For instance, the survey by Hilawe et al. (2013) provides the objectives in the abstract. Unfortunately, Rintiswati et al. (2009) fail to provide an absolute purpose for their study. Nevertheless, the background provides an insight into the rationale behind the survey.

The purpose of any study is supposed to give directions to the nature of the research initiative. For instance, Rintiswati et al. (2009) point out that an earlier survey found that levels of TB prevalence were assessed based on age. In light of this, an appropriate objective of the study would be an evaluation of tuberculosis treatment. In the ‘purpose’ segment, details of the research methods are not necessary. However, Rintiswati et al. (2009) outline the demographics of the study in this section.

Objectives of the Study

A research initiative is meant to establish the reasons why the study was undertaken. In this regard, the objectives help to answer the questions in the title of the study. Rintiswati et al. (2009) point out that Jogjakarta has one of the highest rates of TB prevalence in the world. In this regard, the study sought to estimate the extent of the situation in the region. To this end, Rintiswati et al. (2009) provide a statistical representation of the prevalence rates. The study provides a background statement which helps to advance the objectives.

Sample

Studies meant to quantify phenomena are required to make use of a sample group (Mahendradhata, Utarini, Lazuardi, Boelarrt & Stuyft, 2007). Samples provide the needed statistical data. Such has been the case in studies like those by Bernstein et al. (2015) and Hilawe et al. (2013). Rintiswati et al. (2009) describe the sample group in the background section. A sample section provides insight into the specifics of a study (Demmisie, Lindtjorn & Berhane, 2002). Failure to include this section is a drawback to the study by Rintiswati et al. (2009). However, the methodology section provides the necessary information touching on the sample group.

Methods

The study makes use of a qualitative research design. The research approach uses literature reviews, interviews, observations, and similar methods to collect data. The study by Rintiswati et al. (2009) is a simplistic literature review on the subject of TB prevalence in Jogjakarta. In the introduction segment, a brief history of TB cases is outlined (Rintiswati et al., 2009). Background information on a subject is critical in advancing the objectives of a study. Cross-sectional approaches provide a wide variety of information around a particular subject. Failure to provide cross-sectional data restricts the diversity of the subject addressed by Rintiswati et al. (2009).

Generally, the technique used in this study may not be satisfactory. However, the method is effective in addressing the objectives of this particular study. The study area, research design, and survey procedures are outlined. In addition, questionnaires were used in most of the studies analyzed by Rintiswati et al. (2009). Rintiswati et al. (2009) point out that all the relevant procedures were employed.

Results

Research initiatives generate results based on the specific objectives outlined. For example, Akter et al. (2014) used the results of their study to affirm the objectives they had outlined. A detailed outline of the results is essential in establishing the facts around a problem. Rintiswati et al. (2009) provide an accurate account of the findings of their survey. The results generated were qualitative in nature. To this end, Rintiswati et al. (2009) properly outline the findings as is required in such studies.

Limitations

Studies are associated with various challenges. To this end, it is noted that the credibility of a given study is determined by the ability of the researcher to navigate through the limitations. Rintiswati et al. (2009) point out that laboratory challenges presented some of the challenges in the study. To address this problem, Rintiswati et al. (2009) made use of various safety measures. The move is similar to that taken by Akter et al. (2014), who present limitations and delimitations of their research. Failure to provide delimitations is one of the limitations of the study by Rintiswati et al. (2009).

Relevance to Nursing and Personal Opinion

The study provides information needed to improve healthcare services in the region. Rintiswati et al. (2009) found out that urban areas have higher prevalence rates of TB compared to rural regions. Such information is important in healthcare planning. The reported incidences allow for training initiatives aimed at provide nurses with the necessary skills. According to the opinion of this author, the study by Rintiswati et al. (2009) is relevant to the nursing profession as it allows for planning to improve skills in care giving.

References

Akter, S., Rahman, M., Krull, S., & Sultana, P. (2014). Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes and their risk factors among Bangladeshi adults: A nationwide survey. Bull World Health Organizations, 92, 204-215.

Bernstein, R., Meurer, L., Plumb, J., & Jackson, J. (2015). Diabetes and hypertension prevalence in homeless adults in the United States: A systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 105(2), 46-61.

Demmisie, M., Lindtjorn, B., & Berhane, Y. (2002). Patient and health service delay in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Ethiopia. BMC Public Health, 2, 1-7.

Hilawe, E., Yatsuya, H., Kawaguchi, L., & Aoyama, A. (2013). Differences by sex in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glycaemia, and impaired glucose tolerance in Sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Bull World Health Organization, 91, 671-682.

Mahendradhata, Y., Utarini, A., Lazuardi, U., Boelarrt, M., & Stuyft, V. (2007). Private practitioners and tuberculosis case detection in Jogjakarta, Indonesia: Actual role and potential. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 12, 1218-1224.

Menke, A., Rust, K., Fradkin, J., Cheng, Y., & Cowie, C. (2014). Associations between trends in race/ethnicity, aging, and body mass index with diabetes prevalence in the United States. Annals of Internal Medicine, 161(5), 328-331.

Rintiswati, N., Mahendradhata, Y., Suharna, S., Susilawati, S., Purwanta, K., Subronto, Y., Varkevisser, C., & Werf, M. (2009). Journeys to tuberculosis treatment: A qualitative study of patients, families, and communities in Jogjakarta, Indonesia. BMC Public Health, 9, 158-167.

Selvin, E., Parrinello, C., Sacks, D., & Coresh, J. (2014). Trends in prevalence and control of diabetes in the United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2010. Annals of Internal Medicine, 160, 517-525.

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StudyCorgi. (2022, March 30). Diabetes and Tuberculosis: Review of Articles in Nursing. Retrieved from https://studycorgi.com/diabetes-and-tuberculosis-review-of-articles-in-nursing/

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StudyCorgi. 2022. "Diabetes and Tuberculosis: Review of Articles in Nursing." March 30, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/diabetes-and-tuberculosis-review-of-articles-in-nursing/.

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StudyCorgi. (2022) 'Diabetes and Tuberculosis: Review of Articles in Nursing'. 30 March.

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