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Essential Elements of the Evaluation Model: Assessment and Method Analysis


As it has been stipulated in previous papers, the presented health care intervention project can be carried through two main approaches. These two approaches are premised on Nola Pender’s model of protecting people against health problems. In particular, collaboration among nursing associations as well as deeper analysis of current social, political, and cultural problems aimed at changing people’s behavior are the main elements of the identified intervention model (Marriner-Tomey, 2006). To evaluate the effectiveness of the model, an online survey will be introduced where people from the identified community (patients of the Ambulatory Surgery Center) are free to express their anonymous opinion on the situation connected with prescription drugs and cancer treatment. The questions designed for the survey will be aimed at defining the most frequently used prescription drugs used by patients, the effectiveness of treatment by the prescription drug, the control measures used by pharmacologists while prescribing a specific medication, and the quality of services provided by health care professionals. In addition, the introduction of evidence-based practice is not of the least importance either. All these approaches will be discussed to understand the source of the problems.

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The identified methods for data collection were based on related researchers whose validity and reliability have been approved by the research results. In this respect, close attention should be paid to the research conducted by Manchikanti (2007) who singled out the case of inappropriate use of psychotherapeutic drugs by about 3 % of the American population. In this respect, the above-presented methods for reducing the effects of the problem will be effective because they are carried out using collaborative efforts to prevent further complications and threats.

Analysis of measurable objectives and data needed to assess the outcomes

By the end of the program fulfillment, the prescription drug abuse among the patients of the Ambulatory Surgery Center will be reduced by 50 % within 3 months after the program presentation. Such a short period is established due to the urgent necessity to provide a solution to the problem as well as the goals established at the first stage of program implementation. Furthermore, the established deadline is possible because of the existing prototypes of models aimed at regulating and preventing substance and prescription drug abuse. Concerning the above-presented rationales, it is purposeful to apply to the activities introduced by ASAM Live Learning Center as well as to the ASAM strategic plan whose goals and objectives are congruent with the desired outcomes of the current model provided in the paper. More importantly, the presented activities and missions have much in common with the model proposed by Nola Pender. The commonalities can be observed through the necessity to invite the entire community to participate in the realization of future outcomes and articulating the actual needs that the current health care service should meet. Hence, according to the Final Strategic Long-Range Plan introduced by the American Society of Addiction Medicine (2010), such aspects as sensitivity to the patients’ needs, understanding the strategic position and capacity of the center, and careful analysis of moral and ethical aspects according to the program orientation.

While assessing the desired outcomes, the urge for using numerical data is unquestionable. In this respect, the information provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention where the percentage of people under different age categories using drugs illegally is shown. These figures can contribute greatly to the fulfillment of the identified prevention models because they show what focus should be made to reduce medication abuse in the most effective way (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n. d.).

The rationale for measurable outcomes to fulfill the desired standards

The application of Nola Pender’s approaches and modes for program implementation is explained by the fact that most of the scholar’s methods correlate with the goals and objectives established previously. In addition, the relevancy of collaborative techniques, in-depth analysis of the social, cultural, and political background of the patients, and assessment of people’s perception contributes greatly to defining the reasons why people often apply prescription medications for an inappropriate purpose. More importantly, because most of the reasons are connected with psychological and social factors as well as with costs and risks people take while using prescription drugs, the introduction of the desired outcomes is consonant with the preconditions and determinants triggering people to abuse Rx medications.

One of the brightest examples of collaborative features is tight cooperation between the American Managed Behavioral Healthcare Association and the American Society of Addiction Medicine whose united project is directed at treating addiction and substance-related disorders. Judging from the above project comprising several principles similar to the ones established in the presented health care intervention plan, our model creates greater opportunities for increasing the quality of health care services and preventing the case with drug abuse (American Society of Addiction Medicine, 2008). Re-assessment of existing social conditions, and introduction of new behavioral patents, therefore, is the core task of health care professionals (Manchikanti, 2006). The plan is also justified in terms of reliability and validity due to the above-presented principles of outcome evaluation because the analysis of individual characteristics also matters, specifically when it comes to reasons why a patient starts taking a particular medication.

Assessing a possible negative outcome and providing the potential for improving that outcome

Taking into account that deep evaluation of the social, cultural, and political background of the target community is closely connected with the consideration of ethical and moral issues, one of the possible negative outcomes can refer to a failure to follow the established ethical principles while collaboratively approaching the problem. As proof, Hurwitz (2005) emphasizes, “[m]edical practice is grounded in ethical principles designed to afford patient competent, compassionate care that respects their dignity” (p. 155). In this respect, drug abuse treatment should be expressed through compassion and humanity recognition. Despite this, there are cases when doctors neglect the established principles because of personal interests and stereotypical prejudices. This factor constitutes a serious problem that should be immediately eliminated to prevent the failure of the entire program.

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To prevent or eliminate the problem, strict observance of ethical and moral codes should be implemented as a part of the doctors’ duties and obligations. Nurse health professionals, therefore, should strictly adhere to the established norms because they should realize the consequences of their judgments for patients’ psychological and physical welfare. Moreover, each step of the intervention program should be carried out with an account of all moral and ethical concerns. Observance of norms and regulations is a priority for the successful introduction and fulfillment of the plan.

Intervention sustainability: conditions for keeping the plan going successfully

Evaluating outcomes is an important condition for anticipating and predicting a successful fulfillment of the intervention plan. In this respect, all objectives and goals should be carefully considered in terms of their effectiveness and sustainability (American Society of Addiction Medicine, 2008). Special consideration deserves such aspects as the time-duration of the program as well as the effectiveness of the outcomes for all the parties concerned, including patients, health care professionals, and the community in general. The data analysis methods are of great significance as well because the accuracy of calculations and statistics analysis conducted influence the results. The budgeting should also be taken into the deepest consideration to ensure all the steps and procedures are sufficiently financed. In addition, full awareness of the participants involved in the program plays a crucial role in carrying out the intervention plan effectively. In this respect, nurses and patients should be well informed before proceeding with the action. This particularly concerns the established goals and objectives that the program initiators intend to achieve as well as the reasons for starting the program.

Aside from the program conditions themselves, the health care professional should perform an in-depth analysis of the overall situation in terms of patients’ readiness to be involved in the plan implementation. They should be informed about all problems and shifts that are going to be introduced to the sphere of health care services. Finally, proper evaluation outcome analysis is another important condition for keeping the project going successfully and for predicting great results upon its termination.


American Society of Addiction Medicine (2008). Principles for Outcome Evaluation in the Treatment of Substance-related Disorders: A Joint AMBHA Statement.

American Society of Addiction Medicine (2010). Final Strategic Long-Range Plan. Web.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (n. d.) Illegal Drug Use. Web.

Hurwitz, W. (2005). The Challenge of Prescription Drug Misuse: A Review and Commentary. Pain Medicine 6(2), 152-161.

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Manchikanti, L. (2006). Prescription Drug Abuse: What is Being Done to Address This New Drug Epidemic? Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources. Pain Physician 9, 287-231.

Manchikanti, L. (2007). National Drug Control Policy and Prescription Drug Abuse: Facts and Fallacies. Pain Physician. 10, 399-424.

Marriner-Tomey, A. (2006). Nursing Theorists And Their Work. Michigan: Elsevier.

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