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Human History and Its Three Main Eras

The last two millenniums of human history can be divided into three essential periods with distinct characteristics, which define the period. These periods include pre-modern from 400 to 1400s, modern from 1500s to 1900s, and post-modern from 1900s to present moment. Each period may be analyzed through the prism of various aspects such as ethics, politics, views on metaphysics, or understanding of human nature during the period. I believe that the most significant changes, which determine the differences between these periods, had a “snowball effect.” For example, technological development during the modern era outlined the value of science and research, which in turn provoked even more technological development. The same principle may be seen in most other aspects. Studying these periods may be beneficial not only in terms of increasing historical knowledge but understanding the interrelation between diverse social, political, and ethical sectors.

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The pre-modern era is closely related to mysticism and faith, as well as feudal societies and, in some cases, monarchy. I believe that the different elements of the era complement each other. For instance, monarchy is frequently maintained by religion, and hence it may be the most common form of government during the period of the strong correlation of metaphysics with supernatural beliefs. Even though most of the pre-modern values may appear to be barbaric and not right from the post-modern perspective, the period plays a critical role in social development. Pre-modernism is the most extended period, which may be related to low rates of change.


The modern world may be characterized by much more rapid transformations than the pre-modern world. It is linked with the establishment of individualism, rational perception of the world, the rise of capitalism, and the development of medicine and technology. The development of medicine led to a considerable increase in life expectancy, and technological development offered opportunities to colonize hard-to-reach areas. These factors led to a significant acceleration of population growth and, in some cases, even caused demographic issues related to overpopulation. By the end of the modern era, the rate of change reached its maximum, with industrial revolutions occurring all over the globe and the values shifting towards scientific progress.


Even though the modern era may appear to be a utopia with decent values, high morals, scientific development, healthcare improvement, and establishment of freedom, in reality, it has significant problems. The post-modern era is determined by the process of reassessing the values and principles of the modern world. In many cases, the post-modern world views modernism as a “fraud.” Most modern values may have been used in order to impose a specific point of view, which is beneficial for certain groups of influential people. Therefore, the post-modern era is closely related to skepticism and views the existing variety of fundamental principles as potential “narratives.”

It may be possible to identify a number of emerging principles, yet I believe that they may not define the post-modern era. Even though the world is changing much faster now than it was fifteen centuries ago, and the post-modern period will probably be shorter than the previous eras, it may still last for several centuries. Therefore, humanity is now able to analyze only a tiny fraction of the post-modern world. Moreover, both the modern era and the pre-modern era developed their distinguishing features to their ends. It may be possible that the exact mechanism may be relevant in terms of post-modern. However, even though diverse aspects of post-modernism may undergo significant changes in the future, I believe that the core values of the post-modern world introduced by the relevant studies may remain unchanged.

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