The target population is likely to be exposed to a multitude of threats that jeopardize its health and quality of life. First and foremost, the target population consists of miners: their professional field implies certain occupational risks and the possibility of developing numerous adverse conditions. The most common concern for miners is dust inhalation that can cause what is colloquially known as “black lung” or “miner’s lung (Chigisova & Ogarkov, 2017).” Inhaling dust particles regularly over extended periods leads to the occupational lung disease group pneumoconiosis. Pneumoconiosis scars the lung tissue causes shortness of breath and is associated with ongoing respiratory issues (Chigisova & Ogarkov, 2017).
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Another health risk that miners suffer from is noise: while the majority of them become used to it, the harmful effect does not disappear. Constant exposure to noisy environments leads to ringing in the ears (tinnitus), insomnia, concentration problems, and even hearing loss.
Apart from working in a dangerous environment, the miners in question do not adhere to a healthy lifestyle. They do not have a balanced diet; instead, by consuming too much sugar and animal fats, they expose themselves to the risk of developing heart disease, obesity, and inflammation (Pase et al., 2017). It is said that the miners have excessive BMIs, which are related to stroke, diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, and gallstones (Pase et al., 2017).
The miners are aggravating their already unfavorable heart and lung health situation by smoking and drinking. The latter can also lead to digestive problems: liver and stomach inflammation. Lastly, the target group’s financial situation does not allow it to take preventive measures to advance its health. Taking this into account, one may say that a health emergency can befall these individuals and their budget.
Based on the facts provided in this case, one condition that the miners should be aware of is hypertension. Hypertension is otherwise known as high blood pressure (HBP), and usually, HBP is diagnosed when blood pressure readings consistently display 140 over 90 and higher. The symptoms typically include a severe headache, chest pain, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. While exploring the health situation of coal miners, Chigisova and Ogarkov (2017) discovered that unfavorable microclimate and heavy dust loads led to a higher likelihood of developing arterial hypertension. As for the lifestyle risk factors, the miners in question worsen their situation by eating sugar and fat in excess, smoking, and drinking.
Hypertension is a manageable chronic disease, and pharmacological therapy is one of the critical elements of a successful management strategy. Firstly, patients might want to help their bodies eliminate sodium and water and reduce blood volume, which is doable with thiazide diuretics (Aiyagari & Gorelick, 2016).
However, hypertension patients need to be ready to handle the main side effect of taking diuretics: increased urination. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are another feasible option: they relax blood vessels by averting the release of a natural chemical that narrows blood vessels (Aiyagari & Gorelick, 2016). Lastly, calcium channel blockers help relax the muscles of blood vessels and slow the heart rate.
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The target groups need an intervention to understand the need for a change. From the educational perspective, the miners could be invited to comprehensive screening, during which they will receive enough information about their current status and prognosis. The realization of the potential adverse consequences might motivate them to reform their lifestyle. Nutritional intervention may include providing information about healthier versions of everyday meals. In general, interventions need to promote autonomy and independent decision-making so that the effect lasts.
Aiyagari, V., & Gorelick, P. B. (Eds.). (2016). Hypertension and stroke: Pathophysiology and management. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
Chigisova, A. N., Ogarkov, M. Y., & Maksimov, S. A. (2017). Risk of arterial hypertension in workers employed at coal-mining enterprises: social and hygienic assessment. Sanitary-Epidemiologic Service, 3, 76.
Pase, M. P., Himali, J. J., Beiser, A. S., Aparicio, H. J., Satizabal, C. L., Vasan, R. S.,… & Jacques, P. F. (2017). Sugar-and artificially sweetened beverages and the risks of incident stroke and dementia: A prospective cohort study. Stroke, 48(5), 1139-1146.