Allergies are treated in various different ways and sublingual immunotherapy is one of them. The exact way the sublingual immunotherapy works is not yet known but evidence show that it activates action of cells. Administration of SLIT induces secretion of interleukins by sublingual cells. At the same time, Dendritic cells present antigens to the T-cells. This leads to the formation of immune tolerance antigens. Consequently, the inflammatory responses by the T-cells are regulated (Tang & Allen, 2012). However, research is still underway to come up with clear explanations of how this method of treatment works.
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Before administering the treatment, allergists are supposed to conduct allergy testing to evaluate the patient’s sensitivities. Drops or tablets are then administered to the patient. This procedure is supposed to be repeated for three days a week or as frequently as directed by a physician (Lindsey, 2006). Research sshows that for the treatment to have a long lasting effect it must be carried out for around three to five years.
The treatment is mostly used to treat rhinitis and asthma caused by dust and tree pollens. Moreover, studies are underway to test the use of SLIT in treatment of food allergy. The treatment is beneficial because it reduces the number of visits that a patient has to make to physicians thus saving not only time but also money (Tang & Allen, 2012). Furthermore, the method is easy to be administered at home and while somebody is travelling. Nevertheless, affectivity of SLIT is said to be just as half compared to injection immunotherapy. It also has some side effects which include itching and swelling on the lips.
The tests to determine the smallest dose of anti-HIV medications for pregnant mothers brings two issues on board. Firstly, it would be unfair to let some children continue to suffer being victims of HIV after too small doses were administered to their mothers. On the other hand, it is not only unethical, but immoral to allow HIV transmission take place while there is something that can be done. It is already known that too small doses will not prevent transmission and administering them to some mother would be tantamount to willingly allowing transmission (Earle, 2007).
However, it would be unfair to forget the benefits that this research will bring to the medical field. To begin with, this will reduce cases of unintentional mistakes in dosage which leads to children born with HIV even after pregnant women are given anti-HIV medications (Earle, 2007). Nevertheless, this is a very costly affair because not only does it involve resources in terms of money, but also human lives. The cost comes in two sets. First, there is the cost of the anti-HIV drugs that will be used in the research. Secondly, there is the cost of the drugs that will be used to take care of the children who will be born with the HIV virus.
It is crucial to note that technology has highly improved and nowadays it is not a must that human beings be used in testing of drugs. The various ways that may be used include tissue and cell culture system, cloned human skin cells and computer or even mathematical models among others (Earle, 2007). It should also be noted that this new methods can use human cells and therefore giving reliable information about the effects of this drugs to human beings.
Earle, S. (2007). Theory and Research in Promoting Public Health. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
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Lindsey, H. (2006). Sublingual immunotherapy a Potential Treatment for Allergic Rhinitis. ENTtoday. Web.
Tang, M. & Allen, K. (2012). Kid’s Food Allergies for Dummies. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.