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The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 Evaluation

Background

Among the modern classifications of mental disorders, the most commonly used is the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). It was developed by the American Psychiatric Association and released in Revision 5 (DSM-5). In many ways, DSM-5 differs from previous DSMIVs; the most visible alteration is the switch from Roman numerals to Arabic ones. In DSM-5, the multi-axis system is no longer available. A failure category and a list of associated failures are provided by DSM-5. Among the DSM5 disorders are anxiety, bipolar and related disorders, depression, eating and eating disorders, OCD and associated disorders, and personality disorders. Autistic Spectrum Disorders superseded Asperger’s Syndrome (Zimmermann et al., 2019). Children with bipolar disorder may benefit from treatment that goes beyond simple medication. There are three new categories: premenstrual dysphoria disorders, binge eating disorders, and hamster buying disorders. In spite of the DSM’s usefulness in identifying and treating mental illnesses, a specialist’s training and expertise are required.

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Adolescent Development

According to Eric Erickson’s theory of personality development, recorded in the DSM-5, psychosocial identification of a person occurs during adolescence. First of all, a teenager forms his own, ideal models of social institutions of society. The transition from childhood to adolescence is accompanied by the activation of growth and interrelated development processes (physical, sexual, psychosexual and psychosocial). In the puberty period, rapid growth of the body and limbs, the development of the sex glands occur. Following this, secondary sexual characteristics appear, which is accompanied by a change in the structure of the body and internal organs. The content of a teenager’s mental development is the development of his self-awareness. The situation of a teenager’s development (biological, mental, personality-characterological features of a teenager) involves crises, conflicts, difficulties of adaptation to the social environment.

Interpersonal relationships in adolescence differ in a number of features. If a teenager tries to emphasize his independence in communication with adults, then in relationships with peers a teenager is afraid of being isolated. Due to the fact that teenagers do not fully possess interaction skills, it is difficult for them to maintain interpersonal relationships with others. There are quite a lot of reasons and difficulties: egoism of teenagers, categorical judgments, inability of empathy, etc. The family models of a teenager are undergoing significant changes: in some periods there will be an increase in mutual understanding, in other periods of time, on the contrary, the child’s anxiety and suspicion of his parents will increase.

Most often, adolescents are diagnosed with mental disorders such as anxiety, stress-related pathologies, mood disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition, adolescents may experience behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, attention deficit disorder (ADHD) and others. The most common psychosocial problem in adolescence is the problem of behavioral autonomy. This is due to the fact that a child entering adolescence, there is a struggle (primarily with parents) for their independence, insubordination to adults.

Scientific research identifies three crises that are experienced by adolescents. Firstly, these are physiological reasons that are associated with rapid growth and puberty of the body. During this period, there is a sharp jump in physical development, often the teenager seems clumsy. Blood supply is difficult, so teenagers often complain of headaches, get tired quickly; control over instincts and emotions increases. The process of excitation prevails over the process of inhibition, characterized by increased excitability.

The second crisis has psychological causes related to the formation of morality. There is a discovery of one’s “self”, a new social position is acquired. Teenagers do not always adequately assess their capabilities, there is no clear distinction between their desires and abilities. In this regard, suspicion, bitterness, irritability are observed in behavior. A teenager lives in the present tense, but the past and the future are of great importance to them.

The third crisis has socio-psychological reasons related to the assimilation of society, common signs of the world structure. The object of his most important reflections are the future opportunities that are associated with him personally: the choice of profession, the desire to be able to interact with social groups. A teenager has a so-called sense of adulthood: the need to be, appear and behave like an adult, to become independent of guardianship and control, to gain adult rights. Criminologists should take the psychological characteristics of adolescents in their professional activities into account, since many actions can cause offenses under unfavorable conditions. With the right psychological approach to a teenager, it is possible to achieve positive results in a particular case.

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The section discusses the DSM-5 chapter structure, the transition from multiaxial to dimensional assessments, and the dimensional evaluations in Section III. Disorders typically diagnosed in childhood, youth, or adolescence have been deleted from the DSM-5 and are now mentioned elsewhere in the document (Zimmermann et al., 2019). At least some DSM-5 chapters, according to a remark under Anxiety Diseases, are relevant in revealing the disorders’ relationships. The DSM’s updating process is first described in detail, including field tests, public and professional evaluations, and expert reviews. Its stated goal is to share organizational structures and collaborate with ICD systems as much as possible. While categorical diagnosis has been questioned, researchers have concluded that adding more categories for the majority of diseases is unnecessary.

For clinician convenience, DSM-5 substitutes the NOS categories with two options: other defined disorders and unidentifiable disorders. One option allows the clinician to explain why a disorder’s criteria were not met, while the other allows the clinician to choose whether or not to specify. In DSM-5, the multiaxial diagnostic approach has been phased out, and all disorders are now classified under Section II. Axis V has been replaced by psychosocial and environmental factors.

Developmental Disorders of the Nervous System

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as follows:

  • For at least six months, five or more symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity contradict the level of development and have a negative influence on social, academic, or professional activities.
  • ADHD and impulsivity disorder are more common in youngsters younger than twelve years of age. Social, intellectual, and professional functioning have been demonstrated to be negatively influenced by symptoms (Vitola et al., 2017).
  • Schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses don’t have a discrete set of symptoms, and they aren’t better represented by another mental condition.

Emerging Approaches and Models

A hybrid dimensional-categorical model for personality disorders is introduced in this bigger categorization system to motivate further inquiry. Section III investigates how different cultures identify syndromes and the causes of their anguish using cultural ideas of distress. To assist clinicians in assessing these difficulties, a cultural formulation interview guide is available, which includes questions regarding a patient’s race, ethnicity, language, religion, social culture, and geographic origin (Garcia et al., 2018). Individuals have the opportunity to explain themselves in their own words as a result of the interview and then link this to the perspective of those who may not share their culture. This gives the clinician a more firm foundation for both diagnosis and treatment.

Several diagnostic categories that had been included in prior DSM-5 versions have been removed due to a lack of validity and research support. In many circumstances, unless the patient has a DSM diagnosis, Medicare, Medicaid, or private insurance will not pay for services. Patients should be informed about diagnostic techniques, including the benefits and drawbacks of acquiring a diagnosis. A patient must comprehend the purpose and ramifications of the diagnosis in order to make an informed decision (Barsky, 2017). If a client refuses to be diagnosed, the worker can examine other choices, such as referring the client to non-DSM-based therapy.

References

Barsky, A. (2017). Ethics alive! The 2017 NASW code of ethics. What’s new.

Garcia, D. J., Skadberg, R. M., Schmidt, M., Bierma, S., Shorter, R. L., & Waugh, M. H. (2018). It’s not that difficult: An interrater reliability study of the DSM–5 section III alternative model for personality disorders. Journal of Personality Assessment, 100(6), 612-620. Web.

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Hopwood, C. J. (2019). A framework for treating DSM‐5 alternative model for personality disorder features. Personality and Mental Health, 12(2), 107-125. Web.

Vitola, E. S., Bau, C. H. D., Salum, G. A., Horta, B. L., Quevedo, L., Barros, F. C.,… & Grevet, E. H. (2017). Exploring DSM-5 ADHD criteria beyond young adulthood: Phenomenology, psychometric properties and prevalence in a large three-decade birth cohort. Psychological Medicine, 47(4), 744-754. Web.

Zimmermann, J., Kerber, A., Rek, K., Hopwood, C. J., & Krueger, R. F. (2019). A brief but comprehensive review of research on the alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorders. Current Psychiatry Reports, 21(9), 1-19. Web.

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StudyCorgi. (2022, November 25). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 Evaluation. Retrieved from https://studycorgi.com/the-diagnostic-and-statistical-manual-of-mental-disorders-5-evaluation/

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StudyCorgi. (2022, November 25). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 Evaluation. https://studycorgi.com/the-diagnostic-and-statistical-manual-of-mental-disorders-5-evaluation/

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StudyCorgi. "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 Evaluation." November 25, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/the-diagnostic-and-statistical-manual-of-mental-disorders-5-evaluation/.

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StudyCorgi. 2022. "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 Evaluation." November 25, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/the-diagnostic-and-statistical-manual-of-mental-disorders-5-evaluation/.

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StudyCorgi. (2022) 'The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 Evaluation'. 25 November.

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