# Adolescent Preventive Services and Statistics

## According to the relevant study results section of the Darling-Fisher et al. (2014) study, what categories are reported to be statistically significant?

In Darling-Fisher et al. (2014) study, statistically significant categories were the following: type of provider, practice setting, adolescent patients‘ percentage, years of experience, and region of the practice.

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## What level of measurement is appropriate for calculating the χ2 statistic?

The comparison of observed frequencies to the expected frequencies is appropriate for calculating the χ2 statistic level of measurement. After χ2 values are calculated, they should be compared to the critical values from the distribution table.

Examples from Table 2:

(df = 2; n = 161); χ2 = 12.7652; p<.00

(df = 1; n = 157); χ2 = 6.2597; p=.01

## What is the χ2 for U.S. practice region? Is the χ2 value statistically significant?

χ2 = 29.68, with the value of p<.00. The value of p should be lower than 0.05. In this case, the obtained results could be considered as significant. Therefore, this value of χ2 is statistically significant.

## What is the df for provider type? Why the df for provider type pre­sented in Table 2 is correct?

df = 2 for provider type in table 2.

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df is calculated with the following formula: df = (R-1) * (C-1).

In Table 2, R rows are the following: health care provider, mental health care provider, and others. It means that R=3. C columns are the following: RAAPS users, RAAPS non-users. Therefore, C=2. As a result, the value of df = (3-1) * (2-1) = 2.

## Is there a statistically significant difference for practice setting between the Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services (RAAPS) users and nonusers?

The difference for practice setting between RAAPS users and non-users is statistically significant. It was calculated that χ2=12.7652 with p<.00 which means that the difference is significant.

## What is the null hypothesis for provider age in years for RAAPS users and RAAPS nonusers?

The null hypothesis is the following: there is no significant difference for provider age in years for RAAPS users and non-users.

## Should the null hypothesis for provider age in years be accepted or rejected?

The null hypothesis should be accepted. The calculated value of χ2 is 4.00, and p=0.14. This value of p means that there is no statistically significant difference between results.

## What are clinical advantages and challenges of using RAAPS as described by Darling-Fisher et al. (2014)?

The possible advantage of the procedure is that the assessment requires only 5 minutes for performing which is useful in case of emergency. The possible challenge is that RAAPS applying is not approved in institutions.

## How many null hypotheses are rejected in the Darling-Fisher et al. (2014) study for the results presented in Table 2?

In Darling-Fisher et al. (2014) study, 5 null hypothesis were rejected. They were the following: provider type, practice setting, the percentage of adolescent patients, a number of years in practice, and the region of practice. All results with p>0.05 are statistically insignificant. Therefore, these null hypotheses should be rejected.

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## A statistically significant difference is present between RAAPS users and RAAPS nonusers for U.S. practice region, χ2 = 29.68. Does the χ2 result provide the location of the difference?

The value χ2 does not provide the location of the difference. A post hoc analysis should be performed with the purpose of determination of the difference’s location.

## Reference List

Darling-Fisher, C. S., Salerno, J., Dahlem, C. H. Y., & Martyn, K. K. (2014). The Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services (RAAPS): Providers’ Assessment of Its Usefulness in Their Clinical Practice Settings. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 28(3), 217–226. Web.

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