Agriculture is the key sector in America that has conquered global exports in the world. Currently, America has put in great agricultural thought in the world. This paper analyzes America’s contribution in prevention of natural calamities, decline of soil quality, promotion of production outlay and provision of sufficient food.
According to Henretta & Brody, Gang system was a method introduced in plantation. Actually, Gang system was convenient that facilitated continuous task at a constant rate that was more resourceful in agricultural activities (454). Gang system was more useful especially when slavery was abandoned. Indeed, Gang system ensured that slaves performed task together in a particular time frame. Gang system was more demanding because slaves performed their tasks with machinery.
Sharecropping was an agricultural method that landowners permitted tenants to utilize a particular land. Actually, Henretta & Brody viewed that a share of agricultural products yielded from a land would be given to a landowner, 50% of produce (490). Furthermore, Tenants were determined to work harder in order to employs more efficient agricultural systems in order to yield more products.
According to Henretta & Brody, American farmers commonly utilized Crop-lien system (595). Indeed, United States Civil War caused farmers to experience shortage of cash. In this case, Crop-lien scheme was a method that enabled farmers to obtain credit through borrowing cash prior to planting period (Henretta & Brody 610). Indeed, merchants offered agricultural supplies on credit.
In case, farmers reaped farm products, they would take such products to merchants in order to repay their credit. Moreover, Debt Peonage was important to farmers who would pledge against credit (Henretta & Brody 497). Indeed, Debt Peonage was a kind of credit given to farmers who would utilize farm products to refund their debts. Furthermore, Debt Peonage was a scheme whereby farmers provided physical labors a way of refunding their credit.
Homestead Act was American national regulation which permitted interested farmers free possession of land known as Homestead (Henretta & Brody 629). Actually, many farmers contended to use national land for farming. Homestead Act of 1862 was the initial Act that commissioned freed slaves to improve and develop national land for period of five years.
On the other hand, “Exodusters were black Americans who went through hardship due to failure to refund their huge debt used during farming” (Henretta & Brody 704). Unfortunately, Exodusters were deported from South America and some were murdered, however, endured unfortunate conditions.
Henretta & Brody explained that Dry farming was established in Great Plains to hasten wheat production (542). Actually, Dry farming was an alternative solution to agricultural challenges experienced in Great Plains. Indeed, Henretta & Brody expressed that Dry farming was meant to preserve scarce moisture in dry season through decreasing evaporation hence rising moisture retention (681). Actually, Henretta & Brody viewed that:
Farmers put Dust Mulch after every downpour in order to shield land from severe moisture evaporation. In fact, Dust Bowl was a season of terrible dust storms that led to agricultural destruction because to excess drought. In this case, Soil Conservation Service offered technical support to farmers through building Shelterbelts to prevent wind erosion (604).
Grange movement was an organization established to promote economic development and social necessities in faming activities. Actually, “Grange movement was focused to offer social and insurance support to farmers” (Henretta & Brody 589). Grange movement intended to empower farmers through education. Indeed, Grange movement became cooperative society that provided farm equipment and machinery to farmers. Besides that, Barbed wire was a kind of economical fence that was used to restrain livestock in animal husbandry.
Besides that, deflation reduced prices of services and products. While inflation decreased actual value of currency, deflection boosted actual value of currency, hence enabled local merchants to purchase more farm products at constant quantity of money in a specific period of time.
Actually, “deflection affected farmers when prices of farm products were reduced thus decreased production rate that decreased demand and earnings prices” (Henretta & Brody 474). In addition, “overproduction of agricultural products led to more supply than demand thus contributed to reduced prices of farm products” (Henretta & Brody 699). According to Henretta & Brody:
Colored Farmers Alliance was established when white and black farmers encountered terrible hardship due to increase in farming expenses while reduction in farm earnings. However, the Southern Farmers’ Alliance that was initially formed never permitted black farmers to be members of such society. Besides that, Populism that was a lobby group that intended to promote farmers situations. Actually, Populism strengthened Farmers’ Alliance and Grange movement. Some of populist objectives were passed into rules to safeguard farmers’ interests (705).
Furthermore, Henretta & Brody viewed that Sub-treasury system was established to resolve challenges of farming credit (452). Actually, low prices and rigid currency compelled farmers to experience debt. Sub-treasury system was formed to safeguard credit that supported farmers in agricultural activities.
In addition, Agricultural Adjustment Act was established to sustain prices of farm products in order to retain plenty supply during short production seasons and to formulate marketing quotas to balance between demands and supply market (Henretta & Brody 667).
Furthermore, Food administrations that were international societies ensured enough food in the world. Moreover, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) offered fiscal progress due to experience of negative impacts of Great Depression at Tennessee valley (Henretta & Brody 547). Lastly, Readjuster social gathering was established during American Civil War. Indeed, Readjuster lobby group was formed to enhance education to empower people who were affected during the Civil War (Henretta & Brody 717).
American contribution was so diverse that not only supported the national needs but also offered export to various nations in the world. Such invention was brought due to intense research that led to development of farm technology and machinery.
Henretta, James, & Brody David. America: A Concise History. 4th ed. New York: Bedford, 2009. Print.