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Ancylostoma Duodenale Known as Hookworm

Summary section

Gerald Schmidt and Larry Roberts argue that Ancylostoma duodenale is a parasitic worm also known as hookworm. It is mostly found in the small intestine of mammals such as humans and livestock. It’s one of the major hookworms that cause infections in humans. Numerous A.duodenale often produces iron deficiency anemia.They suck blood from the walls of the intestines causing a disease known as ancylostomiasis.

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The life cycle of the worm begins with the egg stage then advances to the larval stage which is the most dangerous. It finds its way in the skin of the host through the feet particularly when the host steps on matter with high concentration of the larvae. It proceeds to the inner body parts such as the intestines, the liver and the lungs. The mucus on the walls of the small intestines forms permanent residence where the larva matures. Adult hookworms develop lay eggs (egg stage) after mating. The eggs again find way out to the external environment through excretions such as stool and the cycle continues.

Exhaustion of nutrients in the body results to anemia, a disorder caused by lack iron. Heavy infection makes skin looks dry. This is normally attributed to lack of protein. Lack of iron in the body causes heart failure leading to death.

The incubation period generally lasts for some months.This varies with the number of such parasites in host’s body.

In the prevention and control of frequency of hookworms attack, need to take early precaution is vital to ensure good sanitation. One should use latrines and toilets properly, avoid the use of stool as manure in agriculture and ensuring proper footwear especially in infected areas.

In the treatment, a test of the presence of worm’s eggs in stool is necessary. Blood tests are also carried out to helps confirm the presence of hookworms. Anti- parasitic drugs such as albendazoles are normally used in the treatment process of the infection (275-278).

Reaction section

The approach to this article will address the symptoms, incubation period, and ways of transmission, prevention and control and treatment of related diseases caused by the pathogen. It will also give an overview of case studies related to the topic of the study and the real statement of the problem discussed.

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Hookworm is a major havoc especially in the developing countries.Biological researches and studies show that children are the most vulnerable.

General effects in children include intellectual problems, low growth rate; low birth weights for newborns especially those of infected mothers.

As a control measure, populations should be educated on the ways of contracting infections, the dangers concerned and ways of preventing acceleration of the inflections.

Therefore it is evident that hookworms get access to humans through water. This happens when rain water washes of infected stool into running water in which people frequent for varied reasons such as washing or swimming. For this reason, studies shows that many people have attempted to fight the tragedy through putting forward programs as a necessity to most effective approach to deal with the problem. Effects of community treatments were compared with those of the schools and it was concluded that infection intensity of hookworm is significantly lower in the villages.

This wasn’t the expectation of the study. Evidence from the study shows the effectiveness of formulated programs. Rural areas report most infection cases because of poverty, poor sanitation and hygiene conditions.

Children walking barefoot due to lack of shoes are the most victims. They lack clean water to drink and eat unwashed fruits. They are often found to live in environments with no proper sanitation infrastructure and others play in the major dump sites.

Pregnant women are other prey for the parasite. More often than not, deaths of delivering mothers are caused by lack of enough blood in their body. The parasite feeds on the blood excessively.

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Sewage treatment and drinking water pipes should be managed in such a way that contamination is highly avoided. Governments regulations on hygiene also have contributed in the race to ensure medical facilities are readily available for its citizens.

In conclusion, health education will play a great role in addressing preventive measures in the most appropriate way. There is need to develop viable strategies by setting up attainable goals through research. A clear understanding should be directive and proportional to the significance of education, sanitation and hygiene in the fight of hookworms.

Work cited

Gerald Schmidt and Larry Roberts. Foundations of parasitological. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2009.

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