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Biology Lab: Why Ice Floats

Ice is usually considered to be a mineral that consists of hydrogen oxide. When ice is frozen at a constant pressure of 1 atmosphere the resultant effect is that it becomes less dense than liquid water by 9%. At 00c, ice has a density of 0.9167 g/cm3 compared to liquid water which has a density of 0.9998g/cm3 at similar temperature. As the temperatures progress i.e. to 5oc liquid water becomes denser compared to when the temperatures drop to 0oc and the water molecules begin to form crystals. As temperatures fall, the hydrogen bonds between the water molecules become interspersed making ice less dense hence floating on water.

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Cohesion and hydrogen bonding

Water is characterized by the presence of both positive and negative charges on opposite ends; this is because it is a polar covalent molecule. When water molecule align next to each other a weak bond between the positively charged hydrogen atoms and negatively charged oxygen atom is established. The weak bond that is normally formed between the hydrogen atoms and the oxygen atoms forms the hydrogen bond. In living organisms hydrogen bonds help in the chaining together of DNA.

Cohesion and surface tension are water characteristics that are driven by the presence of hydrogen bonds. When you observe water droplets you will realize that the drops tend to clump in a pile rather than spread this is due to due to the bonding of hydrogen molecule in water where the molecules tend to stick to each other this is referred to as cohesion this property is important in the transportation of water from roots to leaves in plants.

Ape index

The ape index is the variation between the arm span as well as your height. This scale is normally measured in inches. This unit of measure was created by James freeman. Getting the ape index involves measuring the distance from the armpit to the tip of the middle finger then multiplying it by two this value is then divided by your height to find the ape index. If the arm span is less than the height this is a negative index, if that is similar then this is a normal index. It the arm span exceeds your height then this positive ape index.

Why beer bottle breaks when left in the freezer

When a liquid such as beer is put in a closed system and frozen there is bound to be changes in its density. The weight remains constant at the onset of freezing but as it progresses there is a significant change in volume of the liquid compared to that of the glass. In essence refrigeration freezes the liquid inside the bottle making the liquid to increase its volume. The rigid object (bottle) when subjected to freezing decreases its volume. Thus, when the volume of the liquid inside is higher than the volume of the container, the bottle is bound to shatter.

Accurate Glassware

There are three types of glass containers that are used in laboratories for the purpose of containing liquid, this are categorized into volumetric, disposable glassware as well as ordinary glass. Volumetric are glass ware that have been calibrated to contain actual or precise amounts of liquid. Some of the volumetric glassware includes pipets, burets and volumetric calibrators, this are considered to be most accurate. However, whenever the measurements don’t have to be accurate ordinary glassware such as beakers and flasks which do not have accurate calibrations are used

Tarring of scales

Tarring of the kitchen scale refers to the removal of the weight of the container from the weight of its content. Tarring is most recommended when using the kitchen scale. This is important in that the actual weight of the food item or content of the container is ascertained.

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Tarring is done by placing an empty bowl on the scale. This is then followed by adjusting the scale to zero incases of a spring scale. The same procedure is followed on digital scales where the scale is adjusted to zero. Once the scale is tarred, the ingredients are then added to the bowl while watching the scale needle for the desired weight.

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