The concepts of climate and weather are closely related to each other; the key distinction between the two is that climate is attributed to a particular region and even a certain season, whereas weather is not (Lutgens and Tarbuck 339).
Among the six elements of weather, temperature, humidity, perspiration, atmospheric pressure, clouds and wind are traditionally listed (Lutgens and Tarbuck 340).
Despite the common myth about oxygen and air being the same substance, the actual percentage of this gas in the atmosphere of the Earth – or, at least, in the lower layers of the troposphere – makes around 20% (20,1%, to be more exact). Surprisingly enough, nitrogen makes most of the atmosphere (78,1%), the rest being filled by such elements as argon, neon, helium, and various compounds (CO2, CH4, etc.).
If the production of CFCs was miraculously stopped, it would take around a century for the ozone depletion to stop and the ozone layer to recover fully (NASA, NOAA Data Indicate Ozone Layer is Recovering para. 10).
Traditionally, four key layers are identified in the Earth atmosphere; these are the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere and the thermosphere. With the increase in height, the density of the gases and, therefore, the pressure, drops. The layer known as the exosphere is also mentioned often; however, since it borders space and contains gases at extremely low densities, it is often omitted (Lutgens and Tarbuck 341).
High temperature of the thermosphere is predetermined by the absorption of the solar radiation; the small amount of oxygen that the thermosphere contains is heated fast, releasing the kinetic energy through rapid movement of the molecules (Lutgens and Tarbuck 340).
Though the two words sound very similarly, the difference between them is huge. Revolution is the movement of a planet around the sun; for the Earth, for instance, it takes roughly 365 days and predisposes the change of seasons. Rotation, in its turn, is the movement of the planet around its axis; in the case with the Earth, takes 24 hours, while on Neptune, rotation takes about 16 hours (The Planet Neptune para. 2).
In summer, the angle at which the sun beams hit the Earth is much steeper. As a result, the refraction percentage is lesser and the temperature is higher.
|Sydney, Australia||May 7||Autumn|
|New York City||May 7||Spring|
The handle of a saucepan on the stove is heated due to the process known as thermal (or heat) conduction. The speed of heat conduction depends on the type of material; for instance, a wooden handle of a metal saucepan practically does not conduct heat (Lutgens and Tarbuck 351).
The length of microwaves is higher than that one of X-rays (1 mm compared to 0.1 nm) (Lutgens and Tarbuck 352).
On the Moon, the sky is black, since there is no atmosphere and, therefore, no possibility for sunlight refraction.
Greenhouse gases are the gases in the atmosphere, which emit radiation. Methane (CO4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) are the most common greenhouse gases (Lutgens and Tarbuck 366).
Among the key effects of global warming, melting of ice capes, destruction of a range of ecosystems due to the increase in average temperature, and a steep rise in the global sea level can be expected (Lutgens and Tarbuck 378).
The difference in the climate of Winnipeg and Vancouver in summer is predetermined by their geographic location. Vancouver is located closer to the sea, the latter serving as a means to make the changes in temperature less noticeable, thus, serving as a means to bring the rates of thermal conduction down (Lutgens and Tarbuck 383).
Lutgens, Frederick K. and Edward J. Tarbuck. “The Restless Ocean.” Foundations of Earth Science. 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. 2014. 339–372. Print.
NASA, NOAA Data Indicate Ozone Layer is Recovering. 2003. Web. 21 June 2014. <http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/environment/ozone_recovering.html>.
The Planet Neptune. n. d. Web. 21 June 2014. <http://www.thetimenow.com/astronomy/neptune.php>.