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Climatology: An Introduction to the Theory of Climate

By definition, climatology denotes the study of climate. Climate for its part refers to a set of weather conditions that characterize a given location (Monin, 1986). With these definitions in mind, theories of climatology refer to the ideas that attempt to explain some climatic phenomena. There are two well known theories in the field of climatology, which try to explain the global warming phenomenon. These include the Greenhouse Gas Effect Theory and the Theory of Cosmoclimatology. This essay is a summary of the latter.

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Henrik Svensmark postulated the theory in 1995. It states that, if a higher magnitude of cosmic rays reaches the lower atmosphere, it becomes cloudier (Svensmark, 2007). Alternatively, if the magnitude of cosmic rays that reach the atmosphere is lower, cloud cover reduces (Svensmark, 2007). The first scenario implies that the increase in cloud cover causes a cooling effect in the atmosphere thereby lowering global temperatures. Similarly, a reduction in cosmic rays that reach the lower atmosphere and the subsequent reduction in cloud cover lead to higher atmospheric temperatures, which result in global warming. The cosmic ray count that reaches the atmosphere is regulated by the sun’s magnetic field (Svensmark, 2007). Variations in the earth’s magnetic flux either lower or increase the magnitude of cosmic rays reaching the atmosphere. At low altitudes of about three kilometers above the earth’s surface, cosmic rays cause increased ionization of the air in the atmosphere (Svensmark, 2007). In so doing, they release electrons, which catalyze the formation of particles that act as core basic elements of cloud nuclei. With the nuclei already formed, tiny water particles continue to gather around them to form clouds. Therefore, lower cosmic ray counts result in lower cloud forming activity.

References

Monin, A. S. (1986). An Introduction to the Theory of Climate. Houten, Netherlands: Springer.

Svensmark, H. (2007). Cosmoclimatology: A new theory emerges. Astronomy & Geophysics, 48(1), 1.18-1.24.

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StudyCorgi. "Climatology: An Introduction to the Theory of Climate." July 22, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/climatology-an-introduction-to-the-theory-of-climate/.

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StudyCorgi. 2022. "Climatology: An Introduction to the Theory of Climate." July 22, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/climatology-an-introduction-to-the-theory-of-climate/.

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StudyCorgi. (2022) 'Climatology: An Introduction to the Theory of Climate'. 22 July.

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