Choosing a nursing model that fits a specific team and facility is likely to improve the quality of care delivered to patients. The organization of care delivery is usually predetermined by such factors as leadership styles, staff retention and recruitment rates, and relevant economic conditions in healthcare facilities. This assignment will focus on the exploration of a collaborative care model, which was observed in a care setting, and the comparison of it to other models of care as well as the provision of recommendations on the improvement of existing practices.
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Collaborative Care Model
In the observed care setting, the collaborative model of care was identified. The model was developed on the need to integrate “mental and physical health care delivery, social care including housing provision, education, physical health promotion, mental health promotion, mental health advocacy and spirituality across the life course” (Ivbijaro, Enum, Khan, Lam, & Gabzdyl, 2014, p. 507). A nursing practice that follows the collaborative framework implies multi- and interdisciplinary training as well as the creation of a new type of workforce such as Primary Care Practitioners with a Special Interest (PMSI) (Ivbijaro et al., 2014). The idea behind collaborative care is the integration of behavioral healthcare into practice settings for improving patients’ well-being from multiple perspectives (Ivbijaro et al., 2014). This means that professionals need to develop trusting working relationships with each other.
Researchers that studied the collaborative model of care found that treating patients with both acute and chronic illnesses requires the attention of mental health specialists. For instance, Ivbijaro et al. (2014) identified the usefulness of collaborative practice when treating patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus and depression. Since both of these conditions are diagnosed either poorly or in an untimely way, the collaboration between mental and physical health care specialists can lead to better outcomes of depression as well as enhanced adherence to treatment developed for managing diabetes (Ivbijaro et al., 2014).
Eghaneyan, Sanchez, and Mitschke (2014) studied the use of collaborative care for treating anxiety and depression in community care settings. The researchers found that the implementation of a collaborative model would lead to organizational change, improved communication between health care specialists decreased barriers to care implementation, and enhanced outcomes and processes of programs targeted at managing anxiety and depression (Enghaneyan et al., 2014). These results indicate that through appropriate training and preparation of specialists, the collaborative care model can be effective in improving communicative relations between nurses, which, in turn, will enhance the existing tools for management and follow-up as well as improve overall health outcomes.
In the present care setting, the collaborative care model was implemented through the referral of patients diagnosed with serious physical conditions to mental health providers. The positive feature of collaboration was that health care providers from different departments messaged each other to get updates on patients’ conditions. On the other hand, the model lacked cohesion for patients that had to visit several departments to get an assessment of their mental and physical conditions.
Case Management Model
The model of case management was developed to address multiple changes in healthcare organizations. According to the research conducted by Fabbri, De Maria, and Bertolaccini (2017), case management is a process that implies “the coordination of services and the optimal use of available resources to the specific objectives through a responsible professional core directly on the case” (p. 396). The model is targeted at making sure that health care providers offer guidance and assistance to patients as well as ensures the optimal use of resources necessary for meeting specific objectives of care delivery. This means that a case manager is expected to fulfill financial, clinical, and managerial roles for coordinating the care of patients. Nurses, midwives, and physical therapists are more likely to engage in case of management due to the features of their professional practice. They can provide both holistic and clinical assistance to patients, especially in cases when these needs differ depending on their conditions. Usually, the model of case management requires professionals to identify several priority objectives and determine what resources are necessary for reaching them (Fabbri et al., 2017). Thus, the model depends on patients’ needs and their diagnoses, which means that resources and methods chosen for one patient may be different from those chosen for others.
While Fabbri et al. (2017) investigated the overall effectiveness of the case management model, Ozcelik, Fadiloglu, Karabulut, and Uyar (2013) studied the use of the model for improving palliative care results of patients diagnosed with cancer. The researchers found that through the model’s implementation, clinicians in palliative care settings were able to improve the “total symptom mean scores and the sub-dimension symptoms of pain, fatigue, nausea, depression, anxiety, lack of appetite, lethargy, well-being, dyspnea, and constipation post-hospitalization and post-discharge of patients” (Ozcelik et al., 2017, p. p. 656). After comparing health outcomes of control and experimental groups involved in the study, it was revealed that patients who were subjected to case management showed a decrease in symptom severity. An important outcome measure to mention is the increase in satisfaction levels of both patients and their families, which means that case-oriented care can have a positive influence on not only physical but also emotional health outcomes. In addition, no differences in health cost and care duration were found.
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Recommending a Care Model
When considering nursing care models that can benefit satisfaction rates, safety, and the overall practice, it is important to consider practices that will yield better communication and teamwork. Thus, the current model of collaborative care can be enhanced through the integration of team nursing. While these models can often be confused, team nursing implies the utilization of a diverse set of skills and training for personnel for sharing responsibilities. As found by Dickerson and Latina (2017), team nursing can “improve quality and patient safety” because “nurses feel supported and staff collaboration improves” (p. 16). To be specific, the model can be integrated through conducting training and team-building exercises within a care setting. A specialist in nurse team building can be hired to train the personnel and inform them about best teamwork practices for the exchange of skillsets.
In summary, it should be mentioned that the appropriate choice of a nursing care model can yield positive outcomes in terms of overall practice, the satisfaction of patients and staff, and safety. The assignment was useful for identifying and analyzing existing models of care for pointing out best practices that nurses can use for improving patient outcomes. The most important point to note is that each model can yield beneficial results when implemented correctly and when appropriate personnel is trained and prepared for it.
Dickerson, J., & Latina, A. (2017). Team nursing: A collaborative approach to patient care. Nursing, 47(10), 16-17.
Eghaneyan, B. H., Sanchez, K., & Mitschke, D. B. (2014). Implementation of a collaborative care model for the treatment of depression and anxiety in a community health center: results from a qualitative case study. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 7, 503-513.
Fabbri, E., De Maria, M., & Bertolaccini, L. (2017). Case management: an up-to-date review of the literature and a proposal of a county utilization. Annals of Translational Medicine, 5(20), 396-401.
Ivbijaro, G. O., Enum, Y., Khan, A. A., Lam, S. S.-K., & Gabzdyl, A. (2014). Collaborative Care: Models for Treatment of Patients with Complex Medical-Psychiatric Conditions. Current Psychiatry Reports, 16(11), 506-518.
Ozcelik, H., Fadiloglu, C., Karabulut, B., & Uyar, M. (2013). Examining the effect of the case management model on patient results in the palliative care of patients with cancer. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, 31(6), 655-664.