When the term Division of Labour strikes the mind the first notion that is carried in the mind is economics or commerce. But this aspect befits well in the discipline of sociology. Sociology encompasses a variety of social stratification theories that try to answer many questions concerning ethical and lifestyle related questions.
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Division of Labour
The concept of division of labour is a generally wider module that encompasses a variety of tasks that need to be correlated well. That is, division of labour will be best understood when a variety of hypothesis will be discussed, compared and eventually contrasted. Generally, the concept of labour can be defined in relation to how cooperative labour and other tasks in the society grow due to industrialization. Therefore, it can be used to categorize certain jobs and separate in accordance to skills acquired by the society. For example, the rise of capitalism is one of the changing ideologies in the trade arena that results in economic interdependence. Hence, division of labour is essential in making trade to happen; in that, the process of production is sequential and each stage is assigned specific professionals to meet the challenge of demand. Marxist theory defines division of labour as a forum in which people give forth the necessary needs of life fro survival reasons.
When we look at a functionalist and conflict theory approaches in the society then a clear hypothesis can be formulated to define the concept of division of labour. Functionalism is a sociological approach that redefines the entire social structure in the essence of the key functioning elements in the society, in this case, the items of division of labour. This theory tries to emphasise on the harmony of the fundamental norms that correlate well in the proper functioning of a system in the society. Briefly, functionalism offers the basic foundation from a biological point of view in which the humans are the fundamental elements that should be responsible in making things happen wholly in the society in any self-sustaining system. Hence, the theory assumes an anti-positive approach in sociology. It is a logical extension of the small functional units of socialization that add up to the whole system in a society, for example, the family and the cohesive nature in self-sustaining. Therefore, individuality and interdependence is fundamental in the functioning of the division of labour as a system in the society. For example, when professionals are assigned different aspect of speciality in a company, this leads to cohesive interdependence and hence gives the desired output from the enterprise.
Conflict theory as hypothesised by Karl Marx tries to highlight on the neglected aspects in the society; the negative side, e.g., divorce. Therefore, this theory highlights on the determining changes in the society that try to destabilise systems that are self sustaining. For example, the status quo of workers who are in a company are under division of labour may be different and this lead to; gender biasness, low salary, and hence lead to under-working. Therefore, division of labour should correlate the positive aspects that sustain the functioning of different professions in the work force and at the same time device ways in which the negative aspects can be addressed in accordance to avoid poor functioning.
Social movements in the world have relatively become the shaping form of lifestyle to many societies. They have resulted in success concerning democracy, globalization and access to justice and education. Compatriots have formed different social movements that address specific interest. Popular music versions like rock, hip-hop, reggae, country, rhythm and blues, metal, rap and many others are social fabrics that nonetheless are social movements. Hence, popular music has a great impact on social movements in the society. The following are examples.
First, Hip-hop culture has been a major identity criterion for youth in the community. This has been evident in forged fashions, colloquial language, street names and formation of crew in the neighbourhoods. Therefore, the members in terms of fans and artistes have been members of affiliate crews and support systems.
Another social movement are the graffiti artists. This type of social movement was aided by the spray-paint technology. Urban transit system was the first media of expression. In fact, this type of social movement correlated with hip-hop rappers and break-dancers. Graffiti artists made backdrops, murals, and designed advertisement flyers for DJs.
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The third social movement that draw a parallel to the above named social aspects is break-dancing. Rappers and DJs made their music and produced them in ghetto bluster stereo systems that enabled the break-dancers to dance, and compete with fellow crews in the neighbourhood for money and share ideas in way. This enabled most of the dancers to earn money to access education.
The concept of social stratification can be simply defined as the hierarchical understanding of persons in the society in-terms of their wealth and power. Therefore, the society is divided into layers of socio-economic status and inequality dimensions. In some western societies, these layers are categorised in three different ways, for example, the upper, middle, and lower classes. Specifically each layer is then subdivided into minor classes. Occupational class is one of the minor classifications of the above named classes; where it generally differentiates the peasants from the noble or rich. In addition, stratification or classing individuals may be related to chaste or kinship ties that are distinguishing in character and material wealth. Honour, prestige and spiritual attachment is a basis in kinship ties. However, the status in regard to wealth, prestige and honour are unequal among individuals; therefore the theoretical hypothesise remains quantitative to ascertain correct stratification of the society.
The concept of social stratification has various phenomenon; for example, power distribution in autocracy is a form in which there is complete concealment of power. There are three characteristics of stratified systems: the first characteristic is the essence of ranking; life’s familiarity that depends on social genres is another distinctive facet of stratification; and lastly, the same ranking of individuals seems to change gradually within a given period of time.
Therefore, stratification deals with class. However, conflict theory that argues in relation to the negative aspects has a specific point out to the aspect of inadequate resources that is essential in making classes of people. Conflict theory challenges the essence of societal mobility that should characterise the upper class, middle class, and lower class. Marxist conflict theory has the same perspective in regard to the inequality that is found in the stratified classes in terms of political or socio-economic power. Hence, the theory draws attention to power disparity; that is; there is no unification of thought on the sharing or classifying individuals. Hence, this theory highlights on the determining changes in the society that try to destabilise systems that are self-sustaining classes of people in terms of individual inequality of power and resource, thus avoids generalisation.