This study is based on the empirical phenomenology approach, and the corresponding data analysis procedures will be employed. Moustakas’ approach is chosen as the guiding methodological paradigm, and it implies the in-depth analysis of the participants’ accounts alongside the description of recurrent themes (Creswell, 2012). Empirical phenomenology focuses on the identification and description of a phenomenon. The focus of this study is the way females develop gender stereotypes as seen by themselves.
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The approach mentioned above involves such steps as horizontalization, development of clusters of meaning, textual and structural description, and the description of the essence. The step concerning the researcher’s reflection will be modified as the role of the researcher will be only slightly touched upon (Creswell, 2012). The first step of the data analysis will include the process of data transcription. The interviews will be tape-recorded, so it is essential to transcribe the participants’ accounts. To reduce the time necessary to complete this procedure, the corresponding software will be used.
Online QDA provides a set of tools that can be employed to conduct qualitative research (What packages are available, 2011). The transcriber will make the transcription process easy and fast. The data will be imported into Word and Excel files. These formats will help arrange and analyze the data. The Excel file will be instrumental in finding recurrent themes through the analysis of keywords. It will also be used to code the data obtained. Furthermore, this type of file will help elicit the most relevant quantitative data (the number of times particular words are used) that will reflect the relevance of this or that theme.
Apart from that, the Word file will also be employed as it enables the user to add some notes that are easy to trace and analyze. The field notes will be made during the interviews as well as during focus group discussions. These notes will be added to transcripts imported to a Word file. These notes will include the researcher’s reflection as well as non-verbal communication patterns and emotions.
These data may also be included in a list of the themes that will be analyzed. To facilitate the process of data analysis, an online tool will be utilized. QDA Miner Lite is the software that assists with coding as well as data presentation (QDA miner lite – free qualitative data analysis software, n.d.).
Thus, the tool helps create graphs to present the data in a reader-friendly format. The graphic presentation of data will help the researcher to identify some trends and reveal some similarities and differences between the participants’ views and backgrounds. The graphs will help the researcher to see the correlation easily. Importantly, the researcher will carefully analyze the codes identified. These codes will be aligned with the field notes made. Thus, the researcher will also make sure that the codes and themes recurrent in interview responses are consistent with the ones found during focus group discussions. The researcher will pay specific attention to themes that occur during focus group discussions.
The process of horizontalization and development of clusters of meaning depicted in detail above will be followed by the textual description (Creswell, 2012). The researcher will describe the participants’ experiences based on their stories told during the interviews and focus group discussions. The researcher will identify the most vivid similarities in these experiences. Importantly, specific attention will be paid to emotions and non-verbal communication patterns. This aspect is important as it provides additional insights into the way the participants feel about gender stereotypes and the process of their development. The similarities (as well as differences if any) will be instrumental in the process of generalization.
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The analysis of emotions will be especially important for the structural description. This step involves the analysis and description of the contexts the participants live in. The family stories, employment-related experiences, as well as the participants’ worldview, will help the researcher to describe the setting. The choice of open-ended questions is largely based on the need to implement this step.
Open-ended questions, as well as the unstructured form of the interview, encourage participants to contemplate their lives and the world around them. The researcher will be able to recreate the participants’ environments through the analysis of their accounts. At this stage, the participants’ accounts will be compared with the researchers’ experiences. This part will be very brief as the focus is on the participants’ views and experiences. At that, the researcher’s perspective can help construct the necessary setting the participants live in.
The final step in the data analysis process is the essence description. This will be a short but important section where the recurrent structures will be identified and described. The researcher will pay special attention to such aspects as the role distribution in families and power distribution as seen by the participants. Again, emotions will also be central as the emotional load can be similar for all the participants. It can also shed light on the participants’ personalities.
Creswell, J.W. (2012). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
QDA miner lite – free qualitative data analysis software. (n.d.). Web.
What packages are available? (2011). Web.