Earth Science and Geographical Features

Pros and Cons of Using Fluorite in Jewelry


Fluorite is a semi-precious earth mineral of the family of calcium fluoride and it is part of the gemstone group of minerals. Although fluorite is a common stone that gemologists often consider unsuitable for the making of jewelry, this mineral has some unique physical characteristics that make it appropriate for ornament making (Genis 3). Brilliant colors- one of the greatest features of the ornaments that entice consumers is the color of the ornament.

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Fluorite is among the most attractively colored earth minerals, and this unique property makes it highly suitable for the making of attractive ornaments. According to Genis (2), fluorite comes in attractive colors such as green, purple, yellow, red, blue and even black. Diaphaneity of fluorite– Diaphaneity is the transparency or translucency of an earth mineral (Genis 2). Fluorite minerals are either translucent or transparent in their appearance and such features make them suitable for jewelry making.

Streak and luster

Ornaments are more appealing when they have the characteristic of streakiness or shininess in their appearance. Fluorite is an earth mineral with assorted colors and high streakiness, which makes it a fabulous stone for the making of ornaments. Fluorite has a glowing physical appearance with an appealing luster that makes it very vitreous and sparkling. Ornaments are conspicuous materials that require this sparkling to make them attractive (Genis 1). The gravity of fluorite– The gravity of a gemstone is the heaviness of a specific gemstone relative to the density of water. Fluorite is a gemstone of low gravity with a specific density of 3.2 carat weight (Genis 5). Fluorite is a non-heat conductor-. Jewels are won around the exposed parts of the body and being a non-heat conductor, fluorite can be a suitable stone for ornaments.


Precious earth minerals used for jewelry-making must meet certain standards in their physical characteristics to make them suitable for making enduring ornaments (Genis 1). Jewelers and gemologists consider toughness, color, brightness, cleavage, and gravity as the important diagnostic properties and physical characteristics of the precious minerals that make jewelry (Genis 4). The toughness of the fluorite gemstone– precious stones considered appropriate for the making of jewelries must have certain levels of hardness. Hard minerals are often resistant to simple scratching and breaking and such resilience makes diamond the most appropriate stone for the making of ornaments (Genis 3). The cleavage of fluorite- gemstone is a precious stone with a poor cleavage due to its weakness in its crystal lattice. The fluorite gemstone often cracks into a definite cleavage of an octahedron nature that makes it difficult for the jewelers to redecorate its shape.

Fluctuation in its colors– fluorite does not have a permanent physical color and its fluctuation in colors makes the gemologist and jewelers to doubt its permanency. Furthermore, changing its color through the color zoning process to suit certain designs is difficult (Genis 2). The chemical nature of fluorite– the fluorite gemstone comprises of a high concentration of fluoride approximated at 49% of its mass.

This chemical component is prone to weathering. When hydrogen fluoride gas reacts with the sun, it becomes highly corrosive and produces a toxic material that causes skin irritation (Genis 6). Easy tear and wear– the softness of the fluorite gemstone makes the mineral weak in its structure and this affects its durability. The gemologists and jewelers fear that using fluorite to make ornaments is futile because this gemstone wears and tears easily.

Water Management as an ‘in demand’ job skill area

Water is a universal basic need for the household consumption and for several other commercial purposes in the industries. Water management is among the most demanding tasks across the world, given the constant climatic changes and human activities that negatively affect the water resources (Somavia 2). Water management requires high competency because the field is a demanding sector.

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Political problems, geographical issues, climatic interferences, metropolitan planning concerns, environmental concerns, water pollution issues, ethical dilemmas, and cultural problems are often on the arise (Somavia 3). Political problems in the water management– a common concern that affects the effective management and distribution of water is political interference. Politicians often use the concept of water supply and the protection of the water catchment areas as their political vehicles during campaigns (Somavia 4). Politicians often make false promises concerning urban management and city planning.

The growing human population– water is on a frequent demand in the urban zones and in the rural centers. The rapidly increasing human population is quite a sensitive matter for the water management workforce. Since housing is a basic human necessity, the rapid increase in the housing demand and the upsurge in the human population are crucial issues that require critical decision making in the water management and supply (Somavia 3).

Geographical issues- engineering technologies brought the water piping technology that ensured an efficient distribution and purification of the water supplied to the residential centers for human consumption. Even though piping has been possible and effective in most of the times, water managers face challenges pertaining to land topography or land terrain (Somavia 5). Climatic problems– Water management is a demanding profession because of the regular weather fluctuations.

Adjusting to the weather changes and mitigating the effects of climate changes are serious concerns in the water management departments. Adverse climatic conditions sometimes bring drought and water shortage, while extreme rainfall brings floods and causes corrosions in the water pipes (Somavia 6). Environmental concerns- climate and weather slightly differ from the aspects of the physical environment.

Environmental challenges in the water management include the supervision of the soil issues, wetland issues, and dry land issues (Somavia 9). Metropolitan planning concerns– Due to the rapid urbanization, the world is experiencing an increase of the commercial buildings and the residential properties within the cities. Controlling the fake engineers, dealing with the rich city developers, ensuring the correct city mapping, and safeguarding the interest of the public in the water management and supply are issues that require proficient approaches.

Ethical concerns in the water management– Water management require high proficiency due to the ethical dilemmas that involve critical decision-making. Being a basic human need, the rich residential and business owners need water, the same way the majority poor need this essential commodity (Somavia 7). Concerns related to the unequal distribution of water, responsible use of water, effective recycling of water, cultural issues of water, ecosystems of water, and protection of the water catchment areas are often on the rise.

Legal and government regulations– Water managers face tough challenges related to the compliance with the local land management policies, environmental protection policies, stringent international environmental standards, and the urban construction and planning regulations (Somavia 8). Water pollution issues­-Water management needs professionalism because dealing with water pollution is demanding due to industrialization, which is an imperative part of national growth.

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The possibility of California Splitting

There is a growing myth that postulates that California will eventually capsize into the ocean. With the adverse changes in the climatic conditions and weather patterns, the world is experiencing an increase in the occurrence of high intensity earth tremors, earthquakes, and tsunamis (Jones and Benthien 2). The San Andreas Fault System instigated the theory about the break-off and collapse of the American State of California (Jones and Benthien 4).

Geographical science has the greatest explanation concerning the likelihood of California collapsing into the ocean. California lies within the Pacific Coast zones of the United States, where the history of the occurrence of earth tremors and tsunamis has been continual (Jones and Benthien 5). At an estimated time of three decades from today, the earthquake scientists or the seismologists have predicted the occurrence of a powerful earth tremor with a magnitude of 8.0 on the Richter scale.

The American States located within the Pacific Coast or west coast regions are prone to powerful earthquakes and tsunamis. There is a likelihood that a section of California State may split and plunge into the ocean. Geographically, what comprise the earth’s surface are the rigid layers of rocks, which were formally the deposits of cool lava some 4.5 billion years ago (Jones and Benthien 2). When exposed to extreme conditions and a thrashing force such as a powerful earthquake, the rock layers can shear and drift apart to form two distinct land portions. The position of California makes it susceptible to split when the predicted earthquakes strike the Pacific Coast of America (Jones and Benthien 9). California lies at the frontier between two tectonic plates of the lithosphere. These tectonic plates may easily shear due to the mantle layer.

The earth comprises of the tectonic plates. According to Jones and Benthien, the tectonic plates comprise of the oceanic lithosphere and the continental lithosphere (8). The lithosphere is the tough outermost segment of the earth surface that comprises the upper mantle and the earth’s crust. The Pacific plate and the Antarctic plate make up the largest tectonic plates. Jones and Benthien (7) state that powerful earth tremors within the Pacific Coast of America may cause a split between the North American plate and the Pacific plate due to the seismic forces.

For several decades, scientists have gradually uncovered the constant grinding between the American Plate and the Pacific plate. Push, shear, and split may occur due to the current fault line between the two plates. This fault line has extended along the American west coast and in the underground of the Pacific Ocean.

Drifting of California into the Pacific Ocean may be an upcoming geographical fact. Scientists have unraveled the truth behind the theory of California through three distinct evidences that support their arguments (Jones and Benthien 4). The seismological evidence– using evidence from the powerful Richter scales, scientists have monitored the prevalence and patterns of the earthquakes and discovered that there are frequent occurrences of earthquakes in California in the recent days (Jones and Benthien 5).

Geodesy-Scientists have closely observed the steady movement of the North American and the Pacific Coast tectonic plates using powerful Global Positioning Systems (GPS). Geology­-geological evidence from the field mapping and aerial photography has revealed the gradual split of the earth faults around California. The Community Fault Model- The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has cited the San Andreas Fault, the San Jacinto fault, the Elsinore fault, and the Imperial fault as evidences of the California’s divide.

A geographic feature around New York

Geographical features are the natural or artificial landforms and ecosystems of the earth. The geographical arrangement of the New York City varies between the different regions of the State. A significant geographical feature found in the New York City is the Niagara waterfall, which is a substantial tourist attraction (Berton 3). The Niagara waterfall is a popular geographical feature found in the Adirondack Park. This park is among the most renowned national parks of the United States. The Niagara Waterfall is undoubtedly the largest and the widest waterfall around the North American regions (Berton 5). Geographically located between the United States and Canada, the history behind the geological formation of the Niagara River and the Niagara waterfall is an interesting knowledge to understand.

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Formation of the Niagara Fall- Geological development of the Niagara waterfall was through the glaciation process some ten thousand years ago. According to Berton (12), glaciers are features that comprise of a mass of moving ice along a valley or a ridge between two volcanic mountains or hills. Glaciers form when the accumulation of water surpasses the melting and sublimation stages over the years.

Due to their own weight, glaciers slowly disintegrate and begin moving towards any direction that allows the movement of the ice pellets. The Niagara waterfall formed through the glacial processes, which were common occurrences in the North American regions several decades ago (Berton 14). Due to the freezing of the water in the north polar regions of America during the winter seasons, huge ice blocks known as glaciers formed around the Niagara escapements.

Subsequently, as the weather in the North American regions slowly began to change from the cold winter times to the high temperature times during the hot summer season, the glaciers melted down and water sought its way downwards to form a huge freshwater stream (Berton 14). The glacier water gradually expanded the river beds and cleared the debris along the forests to form a massive water-way that led down the Niagara escapements.

The melting glaciers carried down abrade rock and debris that caused the deposition of till and huge rock fragments that formed the moraines (Berton 25). The Niagara waterfall story consists of four ancient stages that earmarked the glacial process. The Kansan, the Nebraskan, the Wisconsin, and the Illinoisan conventional periods, were paramount in the glacial process across the North American region.

However, the present-day Niagara waterfall associates with the Wisconsin glacial processes, which was the final and the most recent period of glaciation. Also known as the ice age, the final glaciation process also encompassed the activities of the Wisconsin glaciations (Berton 31). The Niagara waterfall appeared some 10,000 years during the Wisconsin era of the glacial activities also recognized as the Pleistocene years.

The long period of cold temperatures along the North American regions resulted in the formation of glaciers with an average thickness of 2,000 meters. After melting when the summer period approached, the 2,000 cubic meter ice blocks deformed and moved towards the western parts from Lake Ontario (Berton 190). The Niagara escapements experienced this tension and the ice water from the top of the escapements gradually shaped and altered the landscape and the valleys.

US government and the ocean research

There is a growing debate of whether the government of the United States should cease from spending the hefty amounts of government finances in the outer space exploration or find a suitable replacement for this venture (Levison 2). Despite the space exploration exercise bringing enormous transformation in the modern technology, including the Velcro technologies that came from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), space exploration is somewhat a waste of resources (Levison 5).

A debatable scientific logic is whether such expenditures are worth, especially when taking into consideration that the recent focus of the NASA is to investigate new planets that may support life and those that may have water (Levison 4). While plenty of the earth’s water remains underutilized, some remain misused, and some get contaminated, the government of the United States needs to boost the ocean research to quench the human desires.

The current human survival relies on the ocean and other mega water bodies for transport purposes, food purposes, economic growth and environmental investigation (Levison 1). Humanity should be the first priority as human security and human satisfaction determine the present development and the future of the world. The annual budget of 125 million US dollars for the space exploration often goes to the development of sophisticated space exploration gear and the payment of the astrologers, who seem to have brought only a meager change since the 1950s (Levison 6).

Economic research on the American budget reveals that space expedition has not proven sufficient to improve the impoverishing American economy, the dwindling education systems, or even the rising marine problems. The greatest logical discourse that outperforms the space exploration activities is the current focus of NASA on the unknown waters and the unknown outer-space life.

The life of marine features and creatures that support human life is at stake due to the adverse climatic changes, the high contamination of the ocean waters, and the illegal human activities. Realistically, the world cannot undermine the efficacy of the Google Maps, international communication, radio and TV media, aerospace technology, and the improved defense due to the Global Positioning System that promote security (Levison 8).

However, there are several sea and ocean issues that need comprehensive financial and expertise supports to ensure that the insatiable desires remain fulfilled. The rising industrialization in the European countries and in the Asian economies continues to be the source of marine contamination, although research on the remedies is still miniature (Levison 6). Marine debris and marine toxins from the industries and the residential houses continue to exacerbate sea poisoning that destroys aquatic life.

The increasing amount of the red tide algae that causes massive mortalities of the sea creatures and several other marine problems is still receiving a minimal attention from the government and the scientists. Marine science has remained dormant even as the number of cases pertaining to the illegal fishing, illegal ocean expedition, and fish poisoning continue to affect the aquatic life (Levison 5).

The unstable marine fishing standards and policies that promulgate an increase in the overfishing practices have instigated the low fishing returns. Some important fish species have become extinct due to regular deaths from poisoning or from the uncontrolled overfishing (Levison 3). Precisely, the technology that the outer space exploration is bringing is worthwhile, but the increased effort to uncover the unknown waters of Mars is a waste of finance. The American government should finance the two sectors equally.

Differences between Global warming and Ozone Depletion

Although global warming and ozone depletion are major concerns that often disturb the modern environmental scientists, the two concepts have some distinct differences (Kovats, Menne, McMichael, Bertollini, and Soskolne 10). By definition, global warming is the steady rise in the standard temperatures of the atmosphere. Ozone depletion is the exhaustion and destruction of the upper layer of the atmosphere known as the stratosphere.

The stratosphere is the immediate layer of the upper earth that directly borders the atmosphere. The stratosphere comprises of the ozone layer that protects the earth from the detrimental ultraviolet radiation or the ultraviolet rays (Kovats et al. 12). Global warming is a rising problem that is resulting from the effects of the depletion of the ozone layer of the stratosphere. Scientific evidence concerning global warming is the increase in the sea temperatures, which depicts excess sun radiation.

From the above definitions, differences between the two earth problems are eminent in the earth positions where the problems occur. Kovats et al. (17) states that ozone depletion is the weakening of the ozone layer found in the stratosphere earth section, which is the northern part of the sphere commonly known as the Northern Hemisphere (NH). Kovats et al. (11) postulates that global warming is an earth problem that is affecting the oceans, lands, and seas which are found within the Southern Hemisphere (SH).

The greatest difference is that one is the causative agent and the other one is the receptor of the effects. However, the problems of global warming and ozone depletion have diverse independent causes from a scientific perspective. The problem of ozone depletion begins with human activities such as industrialization and urbanization, which are the contributors of destructive poisonous gasses.

Causes of the ozone depletion- human activities that lead to the release of greenhouse gases that are poisonous to the ozone layer are the causes of ozone depletion. The sun energy heats these poisonous gases and a chemical reaction occurs due to the reaction of the highly corrosive greenhouse gases (Kovats et al. 15). The natural photo-chemistry-the chemical process that is normal in the atmospheric gas reactions is also a major cause of ozone depletion.

These atmospheric gas reactions are severe when the quantity of the ozone gas in the stratosphere zone is minimal. Causes of global warming– Global warming occurs when the intensity of the rays of the sun exceeds beyond the normal limits and heats the earth’s surface exceedingly (Kovats et al. 13). The effects of the ultraviolet rays are pervasive to the atmospheric climate, which determines the coldness and hotness of the environment.

The differences between ozone depletion and global warming are also eminent in the manner in which the two processes can be mitigated. Effective remedies can bring reversible changes in the global warming than in the ozone depletion (Kovats et al. 14). Whereas people can find remedies to control global warming across the world because different interventions can reduce global warming, the repercussions of the ozone depletion process are irreversible. According to Kovats et al. (66), “since the local emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone-destroying gases contribute to the processes of global atmospheric changes, preventive policies must be part of a coordinated international effort.” This means that the repercussions of the global warming will be minimal if countries will consider mitigating the activities that result to ozone depletion first. Reduction of the ozone-depleting substances will be the foremost factor.

Four-Day whether changes in New York

Barometric Pressure

Sunny, cloudy, rainy or dry are the main variables of weather. The barometric pressure of the New York City for the past four days varied significantly. The barometric pressure readings for the first, second, third and the fourth day were 30.2, 30.5, 30.1, and 30.7 respectively. When the barometric pressure is high, it is an indication that the weather is cloudy. In the New York City, the third and the fourth days of the month of November 2014 recorded the highest barometric pressures. This means that the weather of New York was cloudy on average (The Weather Channel par. 1). This means that the barometric pressure of a given geographical zone affects the weather of that given region because it makes it cloudy.

Wind Direction

Wind is a significant variable that determines the weather of a given place. For the first four days of the month of November 2014, the wind direction of the New York City varied significantly within certain durations. The wind directions in the New York City for the first four days of the month of November were South West, South South-West, South West, and West South-West respectively (The Weather Channel par. 2).

South West wind direction of the New York City often associates with a partial Sunny weather, the South South-West direction often associate with the partial cloudy weather. This means that the readings of the barometer that indicated high barometric pressure were accurate based on the wind direction of the New York. Similar weather conditions applied to the West South-West direction although there was more sun.


Humidity is a great variable that determines the weather of a given place. The percentage of relative humidity is what depicts the amount of water vapor or simply the water vapor content found in the atmosphere. The relative humidities of the New York City in the first four days of the month of November were 45%, 48%, 53%, and 47% respectively (The Weather Channel par. 6). High relative humidity indicates that the weather of a place is cloudy or rainy, or partially sunny. On average, the four days of the month of November recorded high relative humidities. The results match the recording of the wind direction and the barometric pressure, an indication that the overall weather of New York for the first four days of the month was cloudy and rainy.


The temperature of a place is an important variable that determines the weather of a region. Low temperatures indicate calm, cloudy and a rainy weather, while high temperatures indicate a sunny weather. The temperature recordings for the New York City in the first four days of the month were 56 degrees Fahrenheit, 53 degrees Fahrenheit, 57 degrees Fahrenheit, and 59 degrees Fahrenheit (The Weather Channel par. 3). This is an indication that the weather of New York City has had slightly low temperatures, which is an indication that the weather has been cool. Cool weather in relation to the recordings of the barometric pressure and humidity reflect a cloudy and a rainy weather.

Works Cited

Berton, Pierre. Niagara: A History of the Falls, New York, United States: SUNY Press, 2010. Print.

Genis, Robert. “Latest Burma News.”The gemstone forecaster 25.3 (2007): 1-9. Print.

Jones, Lucile, and Mark Benthien. Putting down roots in earthquake country, South California, United States: Southern California Earthquake Center, 2011. Print.

Kovats, Sari, Bettina Menne, Anthony McMichael, Roberto Bertollini, and Colin Soskolne. Climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion: Early effects on our health in Europe, Denmark: WHO Regional Publications, 2000. Print.

Levison, Lara. Federal Policy and Funding relating to ocean acidification. 2014. Web.

Somavia, Juan. A Skilled Workforce for Strong, Sustainable and Balanced Growth. 2014. Web.

The Weather Channel. New York Weather. 2014. Web.

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