It is projected that one-third of the elderly people aged above 65 and more than half of those aged over 80 years experience at least one fall each year. According to Smith-Ray, Irmiter, and Boulter (2016), falls among the elderly increase with age. At the age of 75 years, the falls are likely to double. The prevalence of falls has been on the increase; for instance, data from the Health and Retirement Study showed from 1998 to 2020, it increased from 28.2% to 36.3%.
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The major causes of falls among the elderly are mainly instability (Smith-Ray et al., 2016). The instability can be due to diseases, environmental hazards, mental status, trauma, and type of footwear. Falls lead to the physical injury, financial and psychological implications on the person affected and the relatives. Multifactorial interventions can attain the reduction of risk of falls. Therefore, the following program uses the multifactorial approach targeting the people aged 65 years and above.
Description of the Program
The program’s name is ‘Stay Composed and Safe’. The name is derived from the need to enhance cognitive abilities, physical fitness, nutritional wellbeing, and balance for the senior citizens and it is an initiative of (Insert Name of Facility) Nursing Home.
Falls among the elderly are attributed to different factors; similarly, there have been many studies that have explored various interventions that can reduce the risk of falls among the group. In the Stay Composed and Safe Program, the interventions to be used will include:
- Cognitive training;
- Pilate training;
- Targeted elderly education;
- Physical exercise (cardiac pacemakers);
- Nutritional supplementation.
Mobility and cognition are linked; a study carried out by Smith-Ray et al. (2016) established that cognitive training (CT) improves mobility among the older population. CT entails tasks that enhance a particular cognitive domain to enhance neurogenesis. CT intervention will be tailored to include six Brain HQ that touch on attention, dual-task ability, speed processing, and visual-spatial WM for the target population.
The study by Smith-Ray et al. (2016) was found out that CT reduced depressive symptoms and increased cognitive ability. Also, interactive cognitive-motor training has been found to improve the functions of cognition that are related to falls among older people (Schoene et al., 2015). Pilates is an art of controlled movements similar to work out. The main focus of the Pilate is alignment, improvement of balance, coordination, and breathing. Pilates training has been found to strengthen muscle balance and increase postural balance among older adults. A study conducted by Josephs, Pratt, Meadows, Thurmond, and Wagner (2016) established that it is effective in enhancing balance confidence; hence, reducing the risks of falls.
Targeted education that enlightens the old people on risks of falls has been found to reduce the risk of falls. Education entails safety communication. This includes risk assessment and education of the elderly based on prevailing health status and environmental awareness and modification (Stern & Jayasekara, 2009). The other component of the multifactorial approach is physical exercise. This entails cardiac pacemakers. It is important to note that the elderly cannot do vigorous exercises.
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As such, innovative exercise procedures have been put in place. For example, exercise programs such as tai chi, activity visualization have been shown to reduce the incidence of falls (Voukelatos, Cumming, Lord, & Rissel, 2007). The intervention will entail the use of calcium and vitamin D as part of the fall prevention program. Studies have shown that the nutrients strengthen the bones, and hence, reduce the fatalities associated with falls. Strong bones reduce the probability of falls.
Instituting the Program
According to Smith-Ray et al. (2016), no single intervention has been found to have a significant reduction of the risk of falls; therefore, the five interventions components will be integrated based on the health status of the elderly in order to enhance effectiveness. The program will start with the identification of the key stakeholders such as the government departments and not-for-profit organizations. The personnel to run the program will be drawn from different health disciplines such as physicians, nutritionists, physiotherapists, nurses, and social workers. The people will be trained about the roles they are to play in the intervention process. The program will be carried out in a nursing home and is an elderly person.
Materials and Resources Required
The main resources required are a training hall and the health professionals from the various disciplines. The materials to be used for the program will include notebooks, pens, shoes for demonstration purposes, and nutritional supplements. The supplements will be sold to the desiring elderly at a subsidized price.
Cost of the Program
The estimated cost of the program is 135,750 USD. The following is the budgetary allocations.
|Item||Year 1||Year 2||Cost(USD)|
|1||Wages and salary (two years)||34,450||34,450||68,900|
|4||Communication and Internet||1,400||1,250||2,650|
|5||Demonstration materials (shoes)||–||–||1,000|
|6||Other Suppliers (writing materials, water, etc)||2,000||1,200||3,200|
Benefits of the Program
Falls reduce the quality of life; therefore, one of the key benefits is to increase the quality of life for old adults. At the old age, the elderly are likely to be having other health challenges; therefore, falls complicate their already difficult health status. The reduction of risk of falls decreases the health burden. Besides, the program will ensure that the elderly can engage in active economic activities that benefit the entire society. For hospitalized patients, it will lower their chances of increased hospital stay. Therefore, the outcome will be the psychological, physical, social, and financial well-being of the elderly.
Josephs, S., Pratt, M. L., Meadows, E. C., Thurmond, S., & Wagner, A. (2016). The effectiveness of Pilates on balance and falls in community dwelling older adults. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 1(1), 1-11.
Schoene, D., Valenzuela, T., Toson, B., Delbaere, K., Severino, C., Garcia, J.,… & Lord, S. R. (2015). Interactive Cognitive-Motor Step Training Improves Cognitive Risk Factors of Falling in Older Adults–A Randomized Controlled Trial. PLoS One, 10(12), 1-6.
Smith-Ray, R. L., Irmiter, C., Boulter, K. (2016). Cognitive training among cognitively impaired older adults: A feasibility study assessing the potential improvement in balance. Frontier in Public Health, 4(1), 1-7.
Stern, C., & Jayasekara, R. (2009). Interventions to reduce the incidence of falls in older adult patients in acute‐care hospitals: a systematic review. International Journal of Evidence‐Based Healthcare, 7(4), 243-249.
Voukelatos, A., Cumming, R. G., Lord, S. R., & Rissel, C. (2007). A randomized, controlled trial of tai chi for the prevention of falls: the Central Sydney tai chi t rial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55(8), 1185-1191.