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Hepatitis B and C Infection in Kidney Dialysis Units


The following is a research proposal on the epidemiology of Hepatitis B infections in the dialysis units. The dialysis units are the sources of the Hepatitis B virus. This knowledge helps to look for ways of preventing kidney dialysis patients from hepatitis infection which will be the concern of this research proposal.

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The dialysis procedures are costly to most kidney transplant patients and it is practically impossible to allocate all patients their own dialyzer, which makes reuse of dialyzer machines common (1). While it reduces the costs, it exposes the patient to the risk of contracting the virus. There is an increased hepatitis infection among patients undergoing dialysis treatment as well as nurses treating them (2). It is imperative to look for ways of containing the dialysis process such that it is safe from viral infections. The safety of dialysis procedures must be of utmost importance in the administration of dialysis to ensure that patients do not contract the virus (5).

While the vaccine method is still effective, most dialysis patients are usually ambivalent to the process and they end up contracting the virus (6). Studies do indicate that people with occult hepatitis B virus test negative when subjected to the Hepatitis B surface Antigen tests (4). When the dialysis patients have occult Hepatitis B virus it may not be detected early enough making the patient a threat. Many tests have to be done on kidney dialysis patients to establish their hepatitis status (3). Infections can be minimized by dedicating specific units for hepatitis positive patients and others for hepatitis virus-negative patients. The challenge is identifying the patients with occult hepatitis B that is currently not identified through the Hepatitis testing procedures (2).

Research objectives

The objectives of this research are to identify shortcomings of dialysis procedures that make dialysis patients susceptible to the Hepatitis B and C viruses.

  • To identify ways of reducing Hepatitis B infections in the dialysis units
  • To identify sterilization techniques for the dialysis machines


The first methodology that this research will use is the case study. The researcher will work in a dialysis unit to explore the procedures that kidney dialysis patients go through. In the process, the research will also examine the safety measures applied in the units to prevent viral infections from the fluids (1). This will give the researcher first-hand information on what are the predisposing factors that lead to the contraction of the hepatitis virus in the dialysis units. In the case study methodology, different cases help in identifying patterns making it easy to draw conclusions and findings (3).

Working in two or three dialysis units in different hospitals will provide the required information. The other procedure will involve laboratory experiments on the cleanliness of the dialysis machines to establish how safe they are from contaminating hepatitis’s virus. The third methodology will involve quantitative data collection on the number of kidney dialysis patients diagnosed with Hepatitis B after the dialysis tests and they had tested negative before (7).


The research will provide information on the number of patients infected with hepatitis B after undergoing kidney dialysis. The other outcome expected from this research is detailed information about how and why dialysis units are sources of hepatitis infections among dialysis patients. The research will address how these factors can be controlled. The other outcome expected from the research is on how the vaccination procedures assist patients from contracting the hepatitis virus (2). The research findings will outline how current dialysis procedures may decrease the current rate of hepatitis infections from dialysis procedures (6). By identifying ways of identifying occult Hepatitis B virus status this research will have achieved the purpose.

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  1. Barker F. Transmission of serum hepatitis. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2006; 276 (10): 841-844.
  2. Williams R. Global challenges in liver disease. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). 2006; 44 (3): 521-526.
  3. Coopstead C. Pathophysiology. Missouri: Saunders; 2010.
  4. Zuckerman A. Hepatitis Viruses- In Baron S, et al. Baron’s Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). University of Texas Medical Branch. 1996.
  5. Harrison T. Desk Encyclopedia of General Virology. Boston: Academic Press; 2009.
  6. Howard C. The Biology of Hepadnaviruses. Journal of General Virology. 1986; 67 (7): 1215-1235.
  7. Kay A, Zoulim F. (2007). Hepatitis B virus genetic variability and evolution. Virus research. 2007; 127 (2): 164-176.

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StudyCorgi. (2022, August 12). Hepatitis B and C Infection in Kidney Dialysis Units. Retrieved from


StudyCorgi. (2022, August 12). Hepatitis B and C Infection in Kidney Dialysis Units.

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