Urbanization moved more than half of the global population to the cities, and homeland security measures and regulations must maintain a safe and healthy society in crowded areas. Kendall (2020) claims that “poverty, crime, racism, sexism, homelessness, inadequate public school systems, alcoholism and other drug abuse, gangs and guns, and other social problems are most visible and acute in urban settings” (p. 15-7). The biggest cities of the United States, such as New York, Chicago, or Phoenix, face these issues as millions of diverse people live closely. Moreover, the events of 9/11 revealed that the national security systems’ effectiveness requires revision, and the government implemented various novelties to increase safety during the War on Terror period.
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For instance, transportation policies, specifically the air ones, have changed since 2001 in most American cities. In New York City, screeners in the airports were upgraded, military professionals were hired to control facilities’ security, and luggage restrictions were established (Transportation Security Administration, 2020). All other transportation places in the city received safeguards and the right to check suspicious passengers. New York’s police significantly broadened their responsibilities after the attacks as the anti-terrorism measures became crucial in the city’s daily life. After the 9/11 attack, police officers were shown by the media as heroes, and their authority increased in the eyes of the citizens. Collective behavior patterns frequently occur in crowded cities, therefore police and the government consider that factor while implementing regulations (Kendall, 2020). Consequently, the intervention in people’s lives, increased surveillance on the streets, and even use of power against citizens have been perceived as necessary for safety.
New York City’s internal communications changed as the emergency NY-ALERT alerting was implemented, and calling 9/11 became the quickest way of getting help. Furthermore, the city’s emergency healthcare expanded, and new incident registration practices were added (Transportation Security Administration, 2020). Moreover, the eased security precautions and restrictions, such as surveillance of political and religious groups’ activities, allowed New York’s police to find terrorists faster and prevent attacks. The homeland security measures are crucial for New York City, and its citizens receive the government’s reports about efforts to ensure the society that they are safe.
Kendall, D. (2020). Sociology in our times: The essentials (11th ed). Boston: Cengage Learning.
Transportation Security Administration. (2020). 19 years after 9/11 terrorist attacks, TSA remains focused on evolving challenges. Web.