# Hypothesis Testing a Conceptual Introduction

## Summary

“Hypothesis testing a conceptual introduction” is chapter 9 of the book called “Statistics for Criminology and Criminal Justice” written by Jacinta Gau. It examines the foundation and purpose of hypothesis testing, provides steps, which should be followed to conduct statistical research. Moreover, this chapter describes expected and observed outcomes, differences between them, Type I and Type II errors, and provides an understanding of the substance of inferential statistics.

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## Arguments

To begin with, Chapter 9 provides solid insight into the differences between expected and observed outcomes. The distinct features outlined are sampling error, produced with inequity between measurements, and a genuine discrepancy between a sample’s statistic and the population parameter. The use of the mentioned tool is explained by an example of officers’ mean ratio measuring through the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) survey. Further, chapter 9 considers null (H0) and alternative (H1) hypotheses, providing the instance of their implementation of the mentioned abstract situation basis. Then, the explanations of Type I and Type II errors and a trade-off between them are provided. The chapter outlines 4 hypothesis testing procedures and explains the nuances of their implementation. Finally, the logic of hypothesis testing in 5 consistent steps is provided, with a description of its usefulness.

## Critics

It is possible to state that information provided in Chapter 9 “Hypothesis testing a conceptual introduction”, is well-structured and supported with instances related to the specialized area. It is possible to obtain an understanding of the complete hypothesis testing process and insight into inferential statistics. On the other hand, the chapter lacks a comprehensive example of hypothesis testing, as only the sequences of steps to follow with a brief explanation of them is provided. It leaves the uncompleted and unsure understanding of the topic, despite the solid theoretical material explained.

## Reference

Gau, J. M. (2019). Statistics for Criminology and Criminal Justice (3rd ed.). Sage Publications.

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StudyCorgi. (2022, October 5). Hypothesis Testing a Conceptual Introduction. https://studycorgi.com/hypothesis-testing-a-conceptual-introduction/

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"Hypothesis Testing a Conceptual Introduction." StudyCorgi, 5 Oct. 2022, studycorgi.com/hypothesis-testing-a-conceptual-introduction/.

1. StudyCorgi. "Hypothesis Testing a Conceptual Introduction." October 5, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/hypothesis-testing-a-conceptual-introduction/.

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StudyCorgi. "Hypothesis Testing a Conceptual Introduction." October 5, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/hypothesis-testing-a-conceptual-introduction/.

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StudyCorgi. 2022. "Hypothesis Testing a Conceptual Introduction." October 5, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/hypothesis-testing-a-conceptual-introduction/.

References

StudyCorgi. (2022) 'Hypothesis Testing a Conceptual Introduction'. 5 October.

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