The aspect of international crimes has become a major area of focus for lawmakers since 1990, due to escalation in organized crimes in the post-boom technology and e-commerce deployed global environment. Large-scale criminal activities, syndicated or otherwise, became major concerns for law enforcers the world over, with special reference to the United States, the Indian subcontinent, (including Pakistan and Afghanistan), Europe, Africa, and Latin American countries.
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While criminal activities were on the rise, enforcement intelligence, on most occasions, needed to raise the bar significantly to control and alleviate such adverse situations.
In this paper, the aspects of international legal mechanism to specifically address crime have been considered including the roles played by major players like the UNO, its crime-fighting arms- ICC and ICL, and the various laws that deal with crime in various aspects and situations.
It is believed that international law and governance could be seen in terms of the benefits they produce, in terms of prevention, containment, arrest, prosecution, and detention. This is without prejudice to the degree and severity of the crime committed and the status of the offenders, political or otherwise.
While everyone is equal before international law, the fact that individuals and not societies, governments, or militia are responsible for their offenses is bedrocked in the laws of international law and justice procedures the world over.
It is seen that since the 1990s, there has been a large increase in the occurrences of international and transnational crimes, especially in developed and developing countries. In certain cases, the crimes have become very blatant, brazen, and bold, which has set the law enforcement agencies thinking on the various strategies for prevention and containment. It would not be wrong to state that crime and criminal systems have received a boost with the high rate of globalization and increased use of e-commerce deployed technology.
Moreover, with telecommunication and communications systems being modernized and made state-of-the art, with greater access to international geographical zones with relative simplicity and ease of operation, criminal systems are greatly advantaged in the hindrance-free mode of their operations with a higher degree of safety and confidentiality and are momentarily able to hoodwink law enforcement agencies.
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The relative transparency and agility of modern internet communications have also become beneficial to criminal syndicates to carry out their nefarious tasks with speed and deadly accuracy.
It is necessary to take into account the different kinds of international criminal activities that take place before delving into the laws and regulations that govern international crimes and the extent to which international laws could contain and arrest crime.
Different kinds of international crimes
The different kinds of international crimes could be:
- Terrorism and acts of violence in other countries aimed at destabilizing the constituted government in these countries.
- Drug trafficking and related crimes.
- Trafficking in humans- human cargo, including women and children.
- Illegal crossing of borders with contraband items- smuggling activities.
- Financial crimes especially internet corporate crimes.
- Providing safe havens for criminals to pursue criminal activities in other countries.
- Illegal sale of weapons and ammunition to other countries.
- Money laundering and relating crimes.
- Environmental crimes and dumping wastes into seas.
- Counterfeit currencies and their circulation for funding illegal operations.
- Trading in women and children for prostitution, pornography, and slavery.
- Creating and funding dictatorships in countries or disturbing democratic processes through terrorist and illegal activities.
It is seen that the main purpose of international crimes is money and acquiring powers and enforcing influence zones. Therefore, it is necessary for crime-fighting agencies and law enforcement officers to get into the roots of such criminal actions and through a policy of extermination, root out such evils in society on a permanent basis.
How does crime prevention work?
The first question that arises in the minds of most people who be in terms of how the international criminal laws work for the benefit of protecting laws, and it is necessary to, first dwell on these aspects.
“An international criminal court has been called the missing link in the international legal system. The International Court of Justice at The Hague handles only cases between States, not individuals. Without an international criminal court for dealing with individual responsibility as an enforcement mechanism, acts of genocide and egregious violations of human rights often go unpunished. (Overview: Why Do We Need An International Criminal Court. 1999).
It is seen that with increasing levels and intensity of crimes, the law enforcement agencies also need to be on the alert and watchful of criminal activities not only within their own borders but also on international levels. There have been more laws in the last 5decades than there have been in the last 5 centuries of human existence, mainly due to increased levels of crimes and more varieties of new crimes.
United Nations Organisation
The United Nations is the premier organization that deals with international crimes and how they could be contained and eliminated. Under the aegis of the UNO is the International Court of Justice, whose task is to administer justice to nations, not to individuals. The UN organization has to meet with a number of serious criminal issues during the years of 1990s. Towards the beginning of 1990, there were issues connected with territorial violation of erstwhile Yugoslavia, now known as Serbia and Montenegro. A more serious issue arose as a result of the massacre of 800,000 Tutsi Community members in Rwanda during 1994 brought down into history as the Rwanda genocide. (Moon 2007).
The United Nations Org, on its part, is committed to the restoration of peace and security in Rwanda and voices its concern over the rehabilitation of survivors of the massacre.
It is seen that the International Criminal Law organizations work in close co-operation with local governments and organizations for crime-fighting purposes; it establishes networks and contacts with international counterparts and agencies throughout the world for fighting crime and restoring peace and order, in nations that have experienced and suffered from crime.
The main organ of the crime-fighting network of the US is Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI). It is necessary to consider their services in terms of how they contribute to international criminal law maintenance and world peace order.
Federal Bureau of Investigation
The FBI network is now under the stewardship of its present director, Robert S. Mueller III. Federal Bureau of Investigation : (Meuller III 2001).
It functions through 56 field offices strategically placed in main metropolitan areas across the U.S. and Puerto Rico. They also retain about 400 resident agencies in smaller cities and towns across the nation. (About Us: Quick Facts).
Federal Bureau of Investigation: Their mission is to secure and safeguard international interests caused by terrorists or transborder threats; to rigorously implement criminal justice doctrines and afford leadership in the local community, state, and federal locations with allies and agencies.
The three current projects are assisting to capture Osama Bin laden, enforcing counter terrorists’ activities on a global scale, and preventing white-collar and cyber crimes as much as possible. (About Us: Quick Facts).
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The FBI makes available a chance to accept many professional challenges, especially in a post 9/11 scenario. There is also a global dimension to the work of the FBI in fighting international crimes.
There are certain laws and conventions that need to be seen in international context. These could be seen in terms of the laws laid down by the United Nations Organisations for assuring human rights in countries where there has been or are, violations or abuse of human rights. It could also be seen in terms of the recommendations and prescriptions of international court of justice (ICJ) or other competent legal international agencies. However, it is seen that these courts could, in most cases, only pass recommendations and not verdicts, since it is a multinational agencies, and it deals with countries, or States, and not individuals. Thus the scope of ICJ could be limited by the nature of verdicts it could pass upon States, or nations. However, in the present context, it is seen that the international Criminal Court has been established in order to help individuals enforce their human and civil rights. The ICC also sees the violations of human rights, or abuses when such matters are referred to it for arbitration, or settlement. The powers granted to the ICC seem to be prima facie, stronger than other laws. Under it either member states could bring about recommended cases involving individuals, or victims, NGO’s, or other known sources may bring action, and again, it could also take up cases pertaining to cases outside its functional jurisdiction, in terms of acts of foreign nationals, or crimes committed abroad. Again it is seen that the case of Chilean ex-dictator Pinochet, during 1998, the Spanish government wanted the British government to extradite him to face trial in Britain, but it was not granted. (Lane 2006).
However, he was later allowed to go to Spain, stating that his health conditions did not allow him to stand trial in Britain. However, taking the 2005 case of the Afghan warlord, Faryadi Sarwar Zardad, who was “sentenced to 20 years prison”, even when he was not a British citizen and none of his crimes were committed in soil of Britain. (Lane 2006).
These shows the apparent imbalances in the legal system wherein one criminal is set scot free while another is convicted for foreign crimes.
Co-operation between states with relation to supranational criminal laws
It is seen that each country may have its own laws that govern crime and its treatment, which may be enforced by states to secure peace and welfare of its citizens. However, during need it needs to make concessions and accommodate laws of other countries also, in the arena of international and transnational crimes. This could have special reference to trans-border violations, crimes committing by local citizens outside the jurisdiction of the country of origin, crimes committed by foreign citizens within the state, and other matters which involve the laws and regulatory measures of more than one country, or countries. It is seen that signing extradition treaties with other countries, could benefit the home country in dealing with alleged offenders wanted in their home countries.
Another aspect of how law enforcement could take place is with the help of the INTERPOL. This organisation shares data bases about crimes and criminals on an international basis.
“INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 187 member countries. It facilitates cross-border police co-operation, and supports and assists all organizations, authorities and services whose mission is to prevent or combat crime.” (Connecting Police. 2008).
The main responsibilities of Interpol are in terms of:
- Securing the totality of police surveillance communication services which enables the law enforcements of member countries to access vital data about criminals and their activities.
- Maintaining and serving a large database which caters to personal and DNA records, and spreading of crime related data and notices including issuing Red Alert Notices, etc. regarding criminals.
- The six major organised activities are corruption, drugs and organised crimes, economic and corporate frauds, renegades, public safety and most significantly, terrorism
- Interpol offers specialised training, needed to keep police force in highest level of combat preparedness and peak, mental and physical skills. It is also aware of its role in fighting crime on a global basis and has geared itself for meeting this challenge.
It is now necessary to consider aspects regarding International Criminal Courts (ICC) and how their functions impinge upon the aspects of International laws. The salient feature regarding ICC, is that they usually take up cases, which are not presently pursued by other governmental or non-governmental agencies, and is directed towards very serious crimes like serious human rights violation, genocide, and other grave kinds of aberrations of rights.
Coming to the aspect of international courts, it is necessary to have one in order to administer justice in legal issues arising in an international context. When crime has been committed in the international waters of one country, it has the right to take action against the offender, according to the laws of that country which has territorial rights to the waters in that particular zone, or the country nearest to the actual site of occurrence of crime. There is however need to have a special law regarding maritime conduct, a specialised set of laws that control the law of the sea, instead of having to rely on the more broad based International Court of Justice decisions and adjudications. A specialised fund would, to the mind of the writer, be better positioned to address the technical issues of the law of the seas.
Again even taken into account the International Criminal Courts, it could be said that individuals do not benefit by ICC decision – only states can be subjected to ICC verdicts. Therefore, it could be seen that individuals would prefer to use arbitrators, or mediators or better still settle the dispute among themselves. It is only in the cases of state disputes that the ICC’s services would be requisitioned, and therefore, its scope is highly restrictive. It is necessary that forums need to be established that could take care of individual issues and try to resolve them that could make the use of such courts more meaningful and useful for individual applicants and justice seekers. Given the fact that the mandate of such courts is enlarge to include serious individual cases, the need for an international tribunal to deal with such issues could be resolved permanently.
Now it is proposed to consider an important aspect of international law in terms of the functioning of the International Court of criminal justice. In the context of ever increasing violence, especially of terrorist nature, the need for a world legal body, that could possibly provide justice to aggrieved victims of terrorist attacks and also arouse punitive systems are much needed, in order to discourage and offer strong resistance to any kind of terrorism. As the United Nations organisation has opined,
“Reiterating its strong condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, committed by whomever, wherever and for whatever purposes, as it constitutes one of the most serious threats to international peace and security.” (Resolution: The United Nations Global Counter Terrorism Strategy).
The main aspect with regard to implementation of international laws in the context of ICJ or ICC is the ability of individual states to have laws in place that could accommodate punishing international crimes. It is thus necessary for states to have an effective and pro-active legal system with all the necessary laws in place. War crimes are tried through special legal laws – Chapter 22 Section 6 – in the Swedish penal code. On the other hand, in Finland and Poland genocide and war crimes are Governed by special legal norms within Finish and Polish penal codes. (Amboz and Stegmiller 2008).
Again in countries like Finland Poland and Sweden, coverage in international laws need to be necessary to prosecute war crimes, , but in a country like Poland, crimes against humanity could be given the status, as prosecuted like ordinary crimes. (Amboz and Stegmiller 2008).
Therefore, it is seen that there is diversity in the legal provisions of different countries in their Legal perspective and viewing of international crimes- in some countries, these are treated as ordinary offences and tried accordingly whereas in others, they are given the status of heinous and major crimes, needing separate treatment. (Amboz and Stegmiller 2008).
To a very large extent, legal mandate needs to be necessary to try war crimes and other international crimes, especially acts against humanity, and this is where the criminals are often let of scot free. “This analysis shows that the legal situation in domestic jurisdiction is quite heterogeneous and that the persecution of international crimes is regrettably very limited in many states.“ (Amboz and Stegmiller 2008).
However, it is seen that over the years, the governments of many states have introduced laws that could appropriately deal with international crimes that occur onits soil or deal with crimes in which, it may be connected at an international level.
ICC needs to be in conformity with UN regulations
It is now necessary to consider the aspects of ICC norms conflicting with that of the UNO especially with those to dealing with issues emanating from international crimes and their treatment in a global context.
Article 16 of the ICC states as follows: ”No investigation or prosecution may be commenced or proceeded with under this Statute for a period of 12 months after the Security Council, in a resolution adopted under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, has requested the Court to that effect; that request may be renewed by the Council under the same conditions.” (Question and Answer 2008). This effectively means that the Security Council has the powers to postpone legal proceedings under ICC laws for a period of 12 months (could be further postponed after expiry of 12 months). Thus it is seen that the limit the role of the Security Council vis-à-vis the ICC, and specifically to prevent the court’s investigations and prosecutions from being subject to prior Security Council approval. But by ignoring the “case-by-case” requirements of Article 16, the current text of 1422 does exactly the opposite, subjugating the ICC to the politics of the Security Council.” (The Icc Security Council: Human Rights Watch Analysis Article 16 2006).
Thus it is believed that 1422 could used by powerful countries like USA to stall the trials of war criminals and not allow the law to take its course and due process in terms of trying them for acts against humanity, genocide and other heinous human rights violations.
Coming to the aspects of Article 39 of the UN Charter could be said as follows: “The failure of the Security Council to find a specific threat to the peace in Res. 1422 not only renders the resolution of dubious legality under Article 16 of the Rome Statute but also under Ch VII of the United Nations Charter. (Langholtz, Kondoch and Wells, p.153).
The apparent conflict between the provisions of the ICC in trying war criminals and that of the UNO in being empowered to delay such trials under votes of security members , vitiates Article 39 of the UN Charter which states, “The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and security.” (Chapter VII: Action with respect to threats to the peace, breaches of the peace and acts of aggression).
It is seen that necessary powers need to be given to the ICC independent to that of the UN Security Council to enforce international laws in an unbiased and dispassionate manner.It is seen that jurisdictional control and power of determination are important aspect when dealing with issues arising out of global crime prevention and punishment:
“For centuries, legalism defined law solely in terms of relations between states. World leaders acted with disdain and little respect for laws because international law did not hold them accountable for their crimes due to technical reasons, such that they were not citizens of the countries where the violations took place or there no robust laws in place that specifically address to war crimes, genocide or other abuses of human rights that they were accused of.”
Areas of improvement for ICC
While considering the question of dealing with international crimes it is necessary to look into Cost effectiveness and the fact whether justice ahs been delivered or not. It is seen that in the context of providing justice for genocide and other human right violators, the ICC has had limited success. It needs to be mentioned that the inability of local courts and judiciary had led to seeking international legal assistance. This is also to avoid the local influences that could vitiate and prejudice the case, especially when the accused are in a position to manipulate the proceedings to their own advantage, and stifle the course of justice.
“International courts are established when the domestic justice system is unwilling or unable to prosecute the alleged war criminals. That is the case of countries emerging from prolonged, violent conflicts or dictatorships. As reforms and reconstruction of local judiciary institutions are lengthy processes, too long to postpone legal actions against key culprits responsible for gross violations of human rights, international courts are the only institutions with sufficient impartiality and technical skills to deliver justice.” (Dorota Gierycz: P.9: Tribunals and Courts: NUPI Working Paper; Transitional Justice: Does it help or does it harm?
However the following aspects may weigh heavily upon international law making bodies. In the first place is their cost effectiveness and ability to deliver results commensurating with the levels of responsibly undertaken. Secondly, it could also be seen in terms f the fact that their own laws circumscribe their performance. Taking the illustration of ICC, it is seen that this body would only intervene at the specific request of local courts. Thus, if the country decided that it can take recourse to its own judiciary, and not really need the intervention of the ICC, it is possible to do so, as was seen in the case of trial of Sudanese President and other top country politicians who are being tried for crimes of human rights and other violations.
It is seen that “upon investigation of crimes allegedly committed in the territory of Darfur, the Sudan, on or after 1 July 2002, the Prosecution has concluded that there are reasonable grounds to believe that Omar Hassan Ahmad AL BASHIR bears criminal responsibility for the crime of genocide under Article 6 (a) of the Rome Statute, killing members of the Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa ethnic groups.”(Situation in Darfur, the Sudan summary of the Case: Prosecutor’s application for warrant of arrest under Article 58 against Omar Hassan Ahmad al Basher.
However, there are clauses in ICC that states that ICC would not interfere if the national courts are pursing the case and this is what specifically happened in the case of the president, in that he manipulated local laws to avoid legal retribution from the ICC.
The laws of international jurisdiction are often said to be powerless since it needs to be confirmed and accepted by the countries. Moreover, it is dubious whether international courts could be given the liberty to interfere in the internal affairs of countries, barring instances of international statue that is universally condemnable, like terrorism, genocide and gross violations of human rights that attracts international awareness and concern. While international concerns are no doubt uppermost in minds of lawmakers, it is also necessary for them to take cognisance of group or individual cases that have global significance and impacts.
It is now necessary to consider the fact that the combating of international crimes through various agencies and institutions has been successful to an extent, since the main aspects would not only be the efficiency and commitment of the global bodies themselves, but the degree of co-operation, trust and willingness from the countries where such laws are needed to be enforced. One of the principle weapons of international crime fighting is the Rome Statute, which grants overall powers in the pursuit for world peace and order.
Under Article 1 of the Rome Statute, it is deemed to be “a permanent institution and shall have the power to exercise its jurisdiction over persons for the most serious crimes of international concern, as referred to in this Statute, and shall be complementary to national criminal jurisdictions. The jurisdiction and functioning of the Court shall be governed by the provisions of this Statute. “(Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict: Rome Statute of the International criminal court: Part 1: Establishment of the Court).
Since questions may arise later regarding the position of the Rome Statute vis-à-vis the UNO, it is clarified through Article 2 that the Court “shall be brought into relationship with the United Nations through an agreement to be approved by the Assembly of States Parties to this Statute and thereafter concluded by the President of the Court on its behalf.” (Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict: Rome Statute of the International criminal: Establishment of the Court: Article 2Court Relationship of the Court with the United Nations).
It is seen that the key aspects in which the enforcers of the Rome Statute should dwell on are in the areas of firstly in terms of “reliance on transnational networks to convey international criminal law and resources into national settings,” secondly in terms of “ hybrid processes in which international actors play a supporting role” and thirdly, “integration of international support for atrocity trials into broader efforts to rebuild national judicial systems.”(Social Sciences research network: 2008: Reassessing the Role of International Criminal Law: Rebuilding National Courts through Transnational Networks).
United Nations Convention on Law of the Seas (UNCLOS)The aspect of ships being arrested in the high seas on charges of entering the territorial waters of another country with their permission is the next aspect that needs to be taken.
Article 73 of the UN Law of the sea Convention relates to the enforcement of Rules and Regulations promulgated by the coastal state with regard to the protection of rights over exclusive economic zones of the state.
Under this, it is possible for the Coastal States in the exercise of its sovereign rights, “to explore, exploit, conserve and manage the living resources in the exclusive economic zone, take such measures, including boarding, inspection, arrest and judicial proceedings, as may be necessary to ensure compliance with the laws and regulations adopted by it in conformity with this Convention”.
Globelaw: International environment & transnational law of oceans: UN Law of the Sea
The Article further states that In the event of arrest, the arrested vessels and their crew shall also be immediately released upon posting of reasonable bond or any other kind of security.
Article 19 of the Law of Sea Convention (LOSC), it is seen that one State could claim the right of innocent passage, in that its passage is “not prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State” (Globelaw: International environment & transnational law of oceans: UN Law of the Sea: Article 19: means of innocent passage.
According to the Convention, passage could be termed to be prejudicial only if any of the following aspects are present:
- Its passage is intended to disturb the territorial freedom, or in clear violation of existing laws protecting the soveignity, integrity and peaceful state of State A.
- It is intended to perform military exercises on area falling within EEZ of State A.
- Any mission with the intentions of collecting information to the detriment of the security or defense of State A.
- Any act forming propaganda that could detrimental to the security or defense of State A.
- Taking off, landing or conducting aircraft exercises for military purposes.
- Taking off landing or exercises for military devices.
- The passage was to load or unload goods, currency or persons in violation of customs, treasury, immigration and health laws of the coastal state.
- The actions of deliberate and significant pollution rendered in violation of this Convention.
- catching of fishes activities.
- Carrying out of research or survey activities.
- Actions aimed at meddling with communications or any other services and facilities in the coastal state.
- Any other activity not connected with the passage (Globelaw: International environment & transnational law of oceans: UN Law of the Sea: Article 19).
Nuremberg and after
It is seen that civilization ensured that the perpetrators of the Holocaust during the Second World War did not go unpunished. The International Military Tribunal (IMT) was designed to record, archive and as far as was possibly, remedies the offenses. During October 1945, the Nuremberg criminals were formally indicted on count of: “crimes against peace, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and conspiracy to commit these crimes.”(USHMM.org:United States Holocaust Memorial Musuem :The Nuremberg trial and their legacy).
However, it is seen that this action alone would not stand the test of proper retribution for criminals whether civil or military. While the Nuremberg trials have been successful in bringing war criminals within the ambit of law, there is need for further such trials in order to bring modern day criminals, whether terrorists, internet hackers, corporate criminals or high sea pirates, within the reach of law. The trials of the Nuremberg kind reinforces the fact that human beings and not societies, organisations, States or military are responsible for crimes. Thus it would have to be individuals who have to be accountable for their crimes. While this could cast a cloud over political accountability, the fact remains that causal relationships need to be developed between crime and punishment. Even if one were to take into account the Rwadian genocide cases, or even Yugoslavia, or other African countries where the human rights record is very low, the Nuremberg kind of trials do not serve much; the kind of justice that Rwanda needs is not the kind imparted by the jury of Nuremberg, but would need to be in terms of a “transform the racist and hierarchical structure of Rwandan society and government.”(Saladin Meckled – Garcia & Basak Cali: The legalization of human Rights: Multidisciplinary perspective on human rights and human rights Law: Is the legalization of human rights really the problem: Genocide: in the Guatemalan historical clarification commission: P. 83: Richard Ashby Wilson).
From the above deliberations it could seen that the problem of policing an international criminal laws are complex and compelling.This is marked by the fact that there are supervening factors that could make it possible for hardened criminals to escape, on the flimsiest of reasons and for relatively lower criminals to receive harsh punishments, sometimes not in commensuration with their crimes and its impact on societal mores.In cases of international laws and its enforcement the main factor would be in terms of how the alleged offender could be booked, or if he is believed to reside in a foreign country, the process of extradition to make him accountable and punishable for crimes in a country.This process is compounded by the fact that different countries have different laws, and even in the EU, countries could have disparate laws governing criminality and its adjudication. As has been seen in earlier parts of this work, in some States, international crimes have been treated within the limits of municipal crimes, whereas in others, there may be need to amend or enforce new laws to meet the limits of international laws that subsist on these cases. Further it has been in decided cases that even if the ICC or the ICJ passes recommendations, it is left to individual states whether to accept them, or reject them. There needs to be laws in place that could also take care of the enforcement part of such laws also. Again, the ICC may not interfere in matters when local agencies and institutions are investigating the case and they need to be specifically assigned to take up cases pertaining to international laws and its violations.
A lot regarding international law enforcements would depend upon the political climate and attitudes of the host country, whether the need for international legal intervention is needed and to what extend and intensity. However the need for stricter vigilance over the international borders of countries, major road and air entry and exit points, and other vital installations, why, even public places of importance or not, could become targets for criminal violence, not justified in any sense but directed to create fear psychosis and panic in the mind and lives of the residents. It is necessary that countries realize the importance of enforcing international laws in line with the guidelines, in conformity with the UNO, ICJ, Rome statutes, ICC and other relevant laws and statutes that need to be enforced to bring a sense of sanctity and safety into our violent and tumultuous lives. It is only the strict enforcement, preventive and proactive type of crime detection and mitigation that could possibly make future generation leads a peaceful, crime free and secure lives.
In the years to come it is believed that international policing needs to be carried out more effective and closely monitored manner. Socio-economic disparities, high costs of education, population growth, inflation and rising living costs make the youth, malcontented and disillusioned with societal taboos. With high unemployment and economic poverty, the youth may often fall prey to the machinations and brain washing techniques used by middlemen, terrorist agents and recruiters who educate on terrorist combat and gun running more than religion. With little opportunities and even lesser economic assets, youth and even children fall prey to terrorist designs and end up killing and plundering their own people.
The need for re-orienting rehabilitated criminals is as important as fighting criminal forces. They need to re-inculcate human values and join the mainstream of society as useful citizens, committed to the cause of the state and country. When proliferation of peaceful society is advocated more strong and potently than a violent and criminal one.
Society would need to change for the better and would set the standards for ade- criminalized, safer and secure society with the betterment and welfare of its members being its fundamental goals and objectives. Till such time, politicians and law makers are able to produce massive betterment for classes, with concomitant benefits to all, crime and its offshoots would continue to rule the roost in modern society.
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