Isaac Newton Scientific Contributions

Isaac Newton is considered a champion of scientific modernity in several aspects. His inventions have not only been historical but have influenced the development in modern life.

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The historical introductions of scientific methodologies have been used to transform ancient methodology to a new phase of natural intellectual development.

Scholars attribute the recent intellectual capital trading to the renowned mathematician and physicist in the scientific revolution (Baigrie 14).

The scientist was inspired to introduce his scientific methodology by utilizing previous advances made in other fields by other experts relevant to his scientific study.

The work of Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei influenced Isaac Newton to conceive the idea expressed in the principles of motion.

Galileo’s ambition on the study of projectile motion on how an item when thrown follows a parabolic path established a guide towards the discovery of the force of gravity (Cohen 23).

The reasoning of Italian astronomer of continued acceleration in the motion of projectiles to the point when the projectiles weight is equaled by the air resistance became the foundation of the inertia occurrence.

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On the other hand, Kepler’s contribution through his explanation of terrestrial motion inspired the discovery of the reason why planets orbited around the sun. Researchers argue that Kepler’s discoveries were seen to be incomplete without deciphering the orbital motion.

Although he had stated that planets moved in eclipses, with faster speed when nearer to the sun, the attraction to the sun was later discovered by Newton (Gribbin 52).

Newton’s discoveries were further inspired by the conflict of theories made by Rene Descartes and Francis Bacon. Descartes, a French philosopher, hypothesized that movement of matter occurs only when acted upon by an external force.

His philosophical theories suggested that movement around the sun was due to a vertical swirl created by a co-extensive relation between them. His conservative invention that matters move only when acted upon by force contributed to the discovery of inertia.

However, his dismissal of analytical Cartesian geometry was revoked by Newton to formulate calculus (Osler 77).

Bacon’ inductive technique contrasted to Descartes’ inductive methods by the introduction of natural history coupled with the direct investigation, which concluded natural occurrences.

Isaac Newton used the advances made in earlier theories to create an improved scientific system applicable in motion and mechanics.

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His first law of motion, referred to as inertia, is grounded on Galileo’s foundation on the tendency of bodies to remain at rest unless a force applied to them compels their movement.

Newton’s second and third laws postulated that when a force is exerted on an object, the object accelerates in the direction of the force acting upon it and that every action has a reaction. He used the three laws to formulate the reason behind planetary orbital movements and behavior.

He indicated that gravity exists between objects, whereby the gravitational pull can be inversely related to the distance between them (Baigrie 52).

Furthermore, this force is dependent on masses of the objects coupled with other force; centripetal and centrifugal. Newton’s laws of motion were applied in the explanation of Kepler’s orbital eclipses of planetary bodies.

Isaac Newton’s utilization of previous advances is considered a revolution since it created a departure from the previous hypotheses and beliefs held by established theorists. The radical change necessitated him to perform different tests to support his departure from normal science.

For gravitational force to be meaningful, he had to prove that the force acting upon the planetary bodies was similar to what made the apple fall.

He theorized the extension of the gravitational force of matter on earth to the distance of the lunar bodies which in turn portrayed similar orbital movement (Christianson 75).

Also, Newton developed calculus through the application of universal gravitational forces to prove that the same gravity established the attraction between planetary bodies.

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He used calculus to discover the attraction wielded by spherical bodies on their surfaces through the assumption of mass concentration in the center of the spherical body.

Isaac Newton followed the study of gravitational pull with new development in optics. His theory on light and color conflicted earlier suppositions and concluded that colors resulted from modification of white light, which is naturally a combination of different shades of light.

He used prism experiments to separate colors from white light, and later, recombining the different shades back to white light. His breakthrough in light dispersion resulted in the correction of aberration of light in older telescopes (Osler 88).

A considerable bane of attacks on Newton’s theory on color created a more outlined course in natural thinking. It resulted in the introduction of reservations on natural phenomena such as electricity and magnetism.

Into the bargain, he added the possibility of the existence of a universal fluid within space. His speculative issues questioned on how light comes about; if the light is in the form of particles released by shiny matter and thereby creating new versions of mechanical philosophy (Cohen 59).

In his theory of fluids, Newton explains motion through fluids where he postulated the law of viscosity.

His inquiry in primordial scriptural manuscripts was seen as an effort to decipher the religious story of creation. His denial of the soundness of the Trinity led him to deliberate on what he thought the early Christian churches had created fallacies.

He placed the rationale of the falsification of the original truth by Christian forefathers to the creation of a hysterical confusion among church followers. His rediscovery process tried to unravel whether biblical characters knew the existence of gravitational forces (Bechler 57).

His venture into alchemy resulted in the recovery of manuscripts that presented what knowledge held by ancient philosophers. His incomplete theory on chemical force examined on alchemists understanding of matter structure which God had created.

Such knowledge would help understand the nature and structure of the world, which he invoked when establishing the Principia (Spangenberg & Diane 125).

Scientific revolution by Isaac Newton became evident after his exhibitions were seen as feasible models of the working universe. His reliance on mechanics instead of spiritual influence portrayed in scriptural texts made his work a remarkable break from the tradition held in the Middle Ages.

The access to his mathematical discoveries was limited to renowned mathematicians. However, interpreters made knowledge of his significant work gradually accessible, which later gained wide acceptance (Gribbin 85).

Newton’s discoveries have had several effects on present-day events.

His mathematical advancement has been useful in navigation because mapmakers and navigators have been able to draw accurate maps and charts, which are used in navigation especially in aviation and other transport means.

Calculus has been useful in the improvement of machinery and weapons (Christianson 95). This has resulted in the shaping of world superpowers and economies owing to the technological endowment and advancement of military artillery.

His inventions have further been improved further to provide more feasible ideas and devices that ease work performance such as engines.

His invention of reflective telescopes has led to technological advancement in the exploration of space with the recent discoveries of other planets within new galaxies.

Newton’s classical mechanics have been useful in predicting the motion of objects and projectiles such as spacecraft, which is essential in the production of accurate predictions within domains of study.

Also, predictions of tidal waves and tsunamis have been made efficient and accurate to prevent disasters and natural hazards. His mathematical and philosophical principles are regarded as revolutionist scientific work whose logic is almost unquestionable by rational means (Westfall 156).

His analyses are widely known and accepted while his models and structures are used in the present day. His utilization of advances by predecessors culminated to the departure from traditional science to a revolution known as modern science.

Admires of his work revere his ability to collate incongruent elements of new science into an articulate whole. His vast knowledge of mathematics heralded the discovery of laws that govern physical and universal operations.

Newton’s inquiry into scriptural relation to scientific physical occurrence has shaped the present day thinking. Previously, human beings would think that movement within the earth and space based on the invariable attention of the creator.

Although divine power is still revered, natural and universal laws of motion have been accepted to the general way of living (Bechler 101).

Newton’s contributions to universal laws have acted as a guide for the formulation of virtual and currently unsolved problems of nature. His outlined reasoning describes how science can be applied as a solution to these problems.

His refinery of Galileo’s experimental composition method is valuable in current practices. The absence of technology did not deter him from encouraging the development of his technology by the invention of revolutionist laws in modern science.

Works Cited

Baigrie, Brian S.. The Renaissance and the scientific revolution: biographical portraits. New York: Charles Scribner, 2006. Print.

Bechler, Z.. Newton’s physics and the conceptual structure of the scientific revolution. New York: Sage Publications, 1991. Print.

Christianson, Gale E.. Isaac Newton and the scientific revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Print.

Cohen, I. Bernard. The Newtonian revolution: with illustrations of the transformation of scientific ideas. New York: Sage, 2004. Print.

Gribbin, John R.. The fellowship: Gilbert, Bacon, Harvey, Wren, Newton, and the story of a scientific revolution. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, 2007. Print.

Osler, Margaret J.. Rethinking the scientific revolution. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000. Print.

Spangenburg, Ray, and Diane Moser. The history of science from the ancient Greeks to the scientific revolution. New York: Facts on File, 2008. Print.

Westfall, Richard S.. The life of Isaac Newton. New York: State University of New York Press, 2004. Print.

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