The Research Question(s) Addressed by the Study
In the study, the authors sought to determine the correlation between different approaches that could be used in understanding the employment systems and customer services, dismissals, and quits in an organization. Therefore, the most important questions that the author addressed, include; “which management practices increase turnover?”(Batt & Colvin, 2011, p. 695). “How much turnover is harmful or beneficial, and under what conditions and why?”(Batt & Colvin, 2011, p. 695). The need to cut the cost of doing business might make the organization layoff some of the workers.
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The Theoretical Framework Underpinning the Study
Theoretically, the study focuses on the evidence that the management practices might have on the performance of the company (Bowles & Cary, 2009, p. 44). Notably, the organization cannot retain a poor performing employee because the company fears the output of such workers, which might not be acceptable in the market. However, there is an assumption that many of the excellent performing workers are probable to quit, while the poor performers retain the status quo (David, 1989, p. 11). Under the assumption, it reiterates the fact that quitting the job might lead to nonperformance in the company.
Instead of waiting for the poor performers to quit their duties, the company might resort to dismissing the non-performers, thus it is part of the issues that the study sought to investigate. For instance, dismissals and quits have a close relationship with work organization, performance, and commitment by the workers (Guesnerie, 2001, p. 22). This is because customer satisfaction has a great bearing on the competitiveness of the firm, owing to the free business environment that characterizes the operations of companies currently (Batt & Colvin, 2011, p. 696).
This makes it vital for the company to understand the impacts of the consequences of quits and possible dismissals. For example, if the poor performers quit the organization, it realizes functional turnover. On the other hand, if the workers whose performance is acceptable to the organization leave duties, the company would realize dysfunctional turnover. Therefore, it is the role of the company to determine the outcome they would like to achieve so that they take ethical action to make it work (Howel, 2010, p. 17).
The Research Design Used
The research design applied was a theoretical framework of finding the truth, with limited application of practical approaches. This design was useful in the short run but might not help in unveiling the reliable truth in subsequent times. The design could not track or give the progressive record of the individual employee (Batt & Colvin, 2011, p. 712).
The Methods of Data Collection
For this study, the author used sampling and measurement as the methods of collecting data. On sampling, the researcher used stratified and random sampling of the population to be surveyed. This increased the probability of finding the truth during research. Some of the variables, whether dependent or independent were measured and tabulated for data analysis.
The population or the company workers were identified, after which the samples were taken for the study. Out of this population, the samples were taken randomly to minimize biasness. Notably, the respondents were asked about their opinion concerning the dismissals and quits in the company, whether they were voluntary or forced. However, the limitation of random sampling was that it might miss the specific population that the researcher intended to investigate. Notably, random sampling cannot give similar results in other parts of the world due to the difference in population samples.
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Data Analysis Used
In this case, the multivariate analysis was used to analyze the dependent and independent variables. In doing the analysis, the researcher calculated the mean, mode, standard deviation, and even the correlation of the variables. The authors also used estimates for some variables that could not be measured. For example, the Tobit model was used for estimating the variables, though it makes the interpretation of the research variables more complicated. The reason being, the coefficient of this model gives the latent variables other than the censored variable, thus the researcher not able to give adequate and reliable information during analysis.
Results of the Study and the Author(s)’ Contribution
Considering the relationships dismissals, quits, and performance, the research revealed that the human resource practices in the company were responsible for the quits and dismissals rates in the company. In addition, this has an impact on organizational performance and productivity. Therefore, the expansion of the output rationalizes the human resource practices that the company adopts.
The empirical study indicated that a high involving work environment and systems are responsible for increased operational performance. In addition, the best and exemplary human resource practices could result in customer satisfaction, amid the various approaches used (Woodside, 2011, p. 84). When the workers are involved in decision making, they would collaborate with the management to effectively solve the problems of the company.
Alternatively, the research found out that improving the employees’ relations could increase the quality of the production since there is a correlation between the workers performing above and those below expectation (Summers, 2008, p. 49). This means that poor performers could learn from their counterparts through this mutual relationship.
Critical Examination of the Study
In essence, the research questions were realistic and original, and directly linked to the area of study. As well, they were significant in that addressing them was the key to unveiling the truth concerning the output of the organization and the human resources initiatives put in place to make sure that success is achieved (Johnmarshall, 2008, p. 31). However, the second question is interesting because it seeks to determine the harm and benefit of the output, but the research indicates that the output is only harmful to the company if the best performers quit their duties, and beneficial when the poor performing workers quit the duties.
In another development, the research questions could be explored differently, by examining the consumer responses to the products. Here, a positive response depicts the high quality and ethical behavior while a negative response would mean low and substandard products (Crane & Matten, 2010, p. 77).
Indeed, the results helped in answering the questions by noting that the human resource practices in the company were responsible for the quits and dismissals rates in the company. This responded to the concern relating to the relationship between management practices and their impacts on the output (Catherine, 1998, p. 28).
One of the limitations to the research was that the findings were based on the information received from the call centers, which in most cases were not reliable. Secondly, the research was limited to a few industries, thus could not give a comprehensive comparison.
Batt, R. & Colvin, A. J. S. 2011. “An employment systems approach to turnover: Human resources practices, quits, dismissals, and performance.” Academy of Management Journal, 54 (4): 695-717.
Bowles, D. & Cary C. (2009). Employee Morale: Driving Performance in Challenging Times. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan Publishers.
Catherine, M. (1998). The Case Manager’s Handbook second edition. Aspen Publishers.
Crane, A., & Matten, D. (2010). Business Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
David, M. (1989). The Practice of Case Management. Boston: Sage Publishers.
Guesnerie, R. (2001). “Second Best Redistributive Policies: The Case of International Trade.” Journal of Public Economic Theory, 3, 15-25.
Howel, R. (2010). “Choosing Ethical Theories and Principles.” International Journal of Transdisciplinary Research. 5.1, 1-28.
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Johnmarshall, R. (2008). Understanding Motivation and Emotion. London: Wiley Publishers.
Summers, N. (2008). “Fundamentals of Case Management Practice.” Skills for Human Services. Pacific Grove: Brooks Cole Publishers.
Woodside, M. (2011). “Generalist Case Management.” A Method of Human Service Delivery. Pacific Grove. Brooks Cole Publishers.