Currently, the biological concept is based on the following aspects of natural science: genetics, neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and neuroendocrinology. Various disorders according to the biological approach are associated with genetic influence, damage to the nervous system, a violation of the exchange of neurotransmitters, and neuroendocrine changes. Therefore, treatment should also be aimed at the pharmacological correction of physiological disorders. The biological approach is currently more typical for psychiatry, which, having a close connection with clinical psychology, considers the etiology of mental disorders mainly from such positions.
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At present, fundamental studies on the structure and functions of the nervous system have reached such a level of development that there are natural foundations for radically new approaches to the study of the pathogenesis of mental diseases. These achievements are associated with discovering neuronal transmitter and drug receptors and their endogenous ligands, the analysis of the sequence of nucleotides in DNA molecules in nervous tissue, and the isolation of brain-specific antigens (Lewczuk, 2017).
Regardless of which of the existing and newly emerged trends will prove decisive on the way to understanding the nature of mental diseases, their general integrative theory will arise as a result of multi-disciplinary approaches to the problem under consideration. Biological psychiatry will play a prominent role in solving this problem.
Mental illnesses are disorders in the brain that often lead to irreversible or difficult-to-treat changes. These are borderline with the norm or pathological deviations in the human psyche. Such conditions do not entail changes of patients’ physical health but only in the sphere of feelings, thinking, or perception of patients. The patient has abnormal thoughts and perception of reality (hallucinations, suicidal tendencies, paranoia), unstable emotional state and behavioral reactions (aggression, depression), and difficulties in communicating with people around.
Lewczuk, P. (2017). Cerebrospinal fluid and blood biomarkers for neurodegenerative dementias: An update of the consensus of the task force on biological markers in psychiatry of the world federation of societies of biological psychiatry. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 19(4), 244-328. Web.