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Mintzber’s Five Ps of Strategic Management

Mintzberg’s contribution to managerial theory and planning cannot be overestimated. The five components that the scholar described allow an enterprise to operate more effectively (Kumar, 2015). The components are widely known under the name of Ps (plan, ploy, pattern, position, and perspective). Understanding each P in Mintzber’s theory is needed to build a robust long-term business strategy (Bhasin, 2018). By focusing on plan, ploy, pattern, position, and perspective, an organization can fully benefit from its capacities and strengths. In this way, Mintzberg brought a new perspective into the strategic concept, which can be applied to the hospitality industry.

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International tourism becomes one of the most impactful activities in the world. The contemporary hospitality industry grew significantly over the last decades with the surge of mass tourism (Vainikka, 2015). Nevertheless, the current socio-economic situation plunged the sector into a crisis (Jiang and Wen, 2020). In this situation, Mintzber’s approach can be used to revitalize the industry afterward. Strategic management that Mintzberg proposed and embodied in the five Ps includes many significant aspects of business management. Specifically, it can be seen in strategic human resource management in the hospitality industry. Strategic human resource management possibly impacts organizational efficacy through strategy (Madera, Dawson, Guchait, and Belarmino, 2017). Thus, strategic practices within HR, such as training, compensation, leadership style, and workplace diversity, can directly correlate with different measures of organizational performance.

Planning seems to be one of the most evident and employed aspects of strategy in Mintzber’s theory. Viewing strategy as planning could be the first step in managerial activities. Furthermore, plans from Mintzber’s perspective can be described as “consciously intended courses of action” (p. 67, Coghlan, 2016). Planning is closely related to PEST and SWOT analyses, brainstorming, project, and change management (Mellor, 2019). Nevertheless, viewing strategy primarily as planning can pose a problem. Planning on its own is not enough, but many managers think about it as the most instrumental activity (Mellor, 2019). In this regard, other components of Mintzberg’s theory complete planning (Brijs, 2016). Overall, balancing the five Ps of strategic management is crucial in securing higher performance.

In the hospitality industry, planning is given a significantly increasing role. This element of the five Ps serves to improve numerous aspects of organizational performance. For instance, enterprise resource planning in the hotel sector has been shown to improve operational efficacy and communication between departments. (Madanhire and Mbohwa, 2016) Furthermore, since sustainability is a growing trend in the industry, planning is also applicable in this matter, helping to reduce waste and manage resources more efficiently (Madanhire and Mbohwa, 2016). Another growing tendency is the forecasting approach to the hospitality industry. Forecasting and planning are interrelated: more precise estimates for touristic demand help to enhance strategic planning (Claveria, Monte, and Torra, 2015). Planning is an instrumental activity for the contemporary hospitality industry, given its specificities such as seasonality.

In conclusion, Mintzber’s five Ps could act as a theoretical basis for building a successful business model in the sector. Ideally, all five elements should complete one another and be used adequately. On the contrary, despite colossal significance, planning can sometimes be used disproportionately compared to other Mintzber’s elements. Yet, the need for sustainability, once growing demand, and seasonality of the hospitality sector require extra attention to planning. Overall, mass tourism and its democratization seemingly prompted the rapid development of the hospitality business and the need for strategic planning.

Reference List

Bhasin, H. (2018). The 5 P’S of strategy by Henry Mintzberg – process and examples. [online] Marketing91.

Brijs, B. (2016). Business analysis for business intelligence. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

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Claveria, O., Monte, E. and Torra, S. (2015). A new forecasting approach for the hospitality industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(7), pp.1520-1538.

Coghlan, D. (2016). Inside organizations: exploring organizational experiences. Newbury Park: SAGE.

Jiang, Y. and Wen, J. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 on hotel marketing and management: a perspective article. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 32(8), pp. 2563-2573.

Kumar, P. (2015). An analytical study on Mintzberg’s framework: managerial roles. International Journal of Research in Management & Business Studies, 2(3), pp.12-19.

Madanhire, I. and Mbohwa, C. (2016). Enterprise resource planning (ERP) in improving operational efficiency: case study. Procedia CIRP, 40, pp.225-229.

Madera, J., Dawson, M., Guchait, P. and Belarmino, A. (2017). Strategic human resources management research in hospitality and tourism. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(1), pp.48-67.

Mellor, R. (2019). Management for scientists. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.

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Vainikka, V. (2015). Rethinking mass tourism: professional discourses of contemporary mass tourism and destinations. Nordia Geographical Publications, 44(2), 99.

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