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Montessori Method in Educational Psychology

Introduction

The world of the pedagogic studies presupposes the consideration of all features of the children and their ability to learn new material as well. In this respect there are too many methods which are used in the contemporary schools. The paper concentrates major attention on the case of the method by Maria Montessori. The features and the standpoints raised by her correlate the flow of the main discussion. For the purpose of evaluation of the Montessori methods and their application to the contemporary school there are five sources which closely discuss the standpoints. Most of them are expressed as the excerpts from books or a piece of the lecture. Thus, the paper is based on the topic and resources discussion. The resources discussion consists of five materials. They represent the ideas of Maria Montessori and her followers as well.

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First of all, it is a book Education for a New World by M. Montessori. The introduction of it represents the main points of the author’s urge for changes in education. Second, the analysis touches upon The Four Planes of Education by M. Montessori, edited by Mario M. Montessori. This source represents the piece of lecture by Maria Montessori given at the Montessori Congress in 1938 in Edinburgh, Scotland. Afterwards it was presented in London in 1939. Third source is The Human Tendencies and Montessori Education by Mario M. Montessori. It is the author’s lecture in the Netherlands, 1956 which was previously published under the title Tendencies of Man. The fourth is the book One Hundred Child Development Tips by Heather Pedersen Ph.D. The book relates its discussion to the insights and suggestions from Montessori teachers. The fifth source is The Advanced Montessori Method, volume I by Maria Montessori.

Topic discussion

The significance of the topic is imposed in the objectivity of Montessori method for teaching children at their initial stage. In fact, such approach when a child becomes a center for education helps to work out and resolve various problems with learning new material. It is also useful for teachers, as the “transmitters” to the world of knowledge. The most peculiar perspectives of the materials represented in the paper lead toward the versatile but concrete structure of major points for education. Maria Montessori along with her method in education is practical in both didactical and psychological spheres concerned with effective and efficient teaching. The main discussion in the paper contemplates the significance of the categories of mind, education philosophy, age, culture, subject, and physical and psychic background of a pupil. All in all, the suggestions by Maria Montessori are taken into consideration, as the fresh breath for educational prospects. A bibliography represents pivotal importance of the methodical framework proposed by M. Montessori in terms of its current implementation in schools.

Source discussion

The bulk of the bibliography represents some overlapping points for a reader. The recommendations about the sources chosen for the discussion include the interesting facts and logical assumptions which were practically tested. In this respect the standpoint of the discussion has a child in the center of the educational process. Maria Montessori was concerned about her method, because in the beginning of the twentieth century psychology became more significant in the society (Pedersen 5). The adaptation of a child toward the realities of time is significant in terms of social, economical, demographical, and spiritual changes which occurred in recent times (Montessori 1956 1). This is why the unifying idea of all sources considers the proper attitude and instructions for adults in leading children. Such proposal should constitute each stage of children’s growing up. Moreover, the sources are closely intended to promote the vision of Maria Montessori on how the education should influence the mankind. The paramount significance of a child is underlined in the discourse of all works under analysis.

The texts provide reasoning of the authors according to the subject matter of the researches. In this case the works by Maria Montessori have a prevalent thought about making more emphasis on the education, as the main means for positive transformations of the world (Montessori 1989 3). Supporting ideas are pointed out in other two of five sources. This is why the analysis of each text underlined in the paper will give a reader clear understanding of main motives and objectivities by Maria Montessori. The point is that the strategic implementation of the Montessori Method is needful for the contemporary schools. The formation of a man is more significant at the initial stage of a child. It is, as Montessori defines, the time when a man represents ability to identify and absorb everything around, so the notion of Absorbent Mind takes place (Montessori Education for a New World 5). The remainder of the bibliography deals with suchlike phenomena in the age differences among children. However, the peculiarities of each among analyzed sources differ in their subjective framework. In other words, the reasoning is the same for all five sources, but each of them is devoted to particular detail or approach as for the Montessori Method.

First of all, the book Education for a New World represents the primordial intention of Maria Montessori for educating children. Her urge constitutes that even within noblest idea wars may appear (Montessori Education for a New World 3). This is why the valuable position of education is placed, as the alternative from making mistakes. Generating cultural and traditional aspects of life in children, a teacher should place education priorities in a correct order. A child should be in the center of the educational process. Furthermore, the flow of educational perspectives should prop up against new lines for knowledge transmission. The philosophy of the book outlines the idea that the mankind develops from a child, for a child is a “constructor of man, and so of society” (Montessori Education for a New World 4).

Thereupon, it is easy for a reader to catch the main point of the discussion in the book. M. Montessori masterly indicates the essence of the book in the very beginning of it. This is why one may surely admit the plain language of the book. This makes it comprehensive not only for the academic layer of people, but for all adults. In this feature the strategic feature of Montessori narration is outlined. Such evaluation of the peculiar style and language of the book makes main assertions apparent for current reality. Thus, the statement that education should serve more for the release of children’s potentialities is really fantastic (Montessori Education for a New World 4). This indicates that just representation and delivery of knowledge is not a probable impulse for a child. On the other hand, a progressive teacher should provide a capability in children in order to search for their talents. The optimistic and sequential development of communication between a teacher and a pupil encourages a child greatly. A Montessori teacher should have faith in a child’s opportunities (Montessori Education for a New World 67). Thus, this source displays and evaluates the importance of new outlook on the education process. Educators, as the main participants, are shared with proper instructions by means of the book.

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The Four Planes of Education is the source which has a concise structure, but it is colored with rationality in educational methods. Dr. Maria Montessori when providing her assertions in the Montessori Congress in Edinburg insisted on the psychological approach. The thing is that life is the process of development. This is why it can be measured into several distinctive periods. In terms of education it is a pupil who should be evaluated in several stages of growing up. The lecture provides a scope of strategic as well as logical assumptions about the attitude of a teacher. It should not be the same toward pupils of all ages and of all extents of knowledge acquisition. This statement has different arguments in the lecture. The most viable is that the psychological characterization of a pupil, as an object of education, should consider the psychological factor. The comparative analysis of the author provides simple and comprehensive examples of why a teacher should correspond to several phases of development in children. Looking at the idea of crises in growth the researcher asserts that it is the first objective to which a teacher should correspond special attention (Montessori 1938 1). This lecture reflects standpoints in the previous source according to the psychological approach in education. It also correlates the tips for a teacher on which insists Heather Pedersen in her book. Thus, the lecture serves as an additional on the Montessori Method significance.

The lecture by Mario M. Montessori The Human Tendencies and Montessori Education supports the teaching of Maria Montessori. The main discussion touches upon the estimation of the concept of “adaptation” in the educational process. Again the vitality of the psychological approach unites this lecture with all other sources. The point is that the author notes that psychological play in education makes a child adapted to the environment of other individuals (Montessori 1956 1). In fact, living in the society one should be an apt psychologist when identifying peoples’ attitudes, behaviors, and supposed actions. In the closing part of the lecture there is a thought that children are trying to attach themselves to the societal norms (Montessori 1956 1). These intentions should be rightly evaluated by a teacher, so that to direct a child on the correct pathway. Thus, this source recommends a reader to be aware of the adaptation concept significance for a child in education.

One Hundred Child Development Tips by Heather Pedersen is an examination of how teachers should direct children. Thereupon, the author structured a book in order to instruct not only teachers but adults on the whole. The book is attractive due to its elementary pieces of advice which adults usually miss in bringing up. Pedersen once more attempts to make parents optimize the emotional, cultural, and intellectual elaboration in children (Pedersen 5). Furthermore, the author provides significant steps when choosing a school for a child. In this aspect of the discussion the psychological as well as psychic background of child matters. It also correlates the book in its similarity to other sources.

The Advanced Montessori Method, volume I by Maria Montessori is the representation of how the author practically used her method in schools. The main point of Maria Montessori unites this book with other ones. It is that a child is an expression of goodness which should be further developed in an individual. The book is helpful for those who want to make first glimpses at how the right reasoning about children should be promoted. The instruction for teachers, it gives more emphasis as of effective education process with positive results. Educating and bringing up well-to-do children a teacher should be aware of doing it in the very beginning. In other words, the advanced method presupposes great results of educating and bringing up pupils if a teacher is apt to make successful first steps in children’s inner needs (Montessori The Advanced Montessori Method 23).

Conclusion

To sum up, the paper represents the most significant ideas as for the Montessori Method. It is too informative and instructive for a reader due to the logical and strategic implementation. Thus, the standpoints of a child being in the center of educational process and psychological approach are highlighted. Furthermore the survey corresponds to the importance of appropriate teacher training for the correct understanding and use of the method. All in all, the discussion of the paper closely pointed out the new methods and concepts to be used for effective and efficient education from the initial stage of a child to the formation of an individual.

Works cited

Montessori, Maria. Education for a New World. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO Ltd.,1989.

Montessori, Maria. The Advanced Montessori Method, Volume 1 : Her Program For Educating Elementary School Children (Formerly Titled Spontaneous Activity In Education). New York: Schocken,1989.

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Montessori, Maria. “The Four Planes of Education”. Edinburgh: The Montessori Congress, 1938.

Montessori, Mario M. “The Human Tendencies and Montessori Education”. Amsterdam, 1956.

Pedersen, Heather. One Hundred Child Development Tips: Insights and Suggestions from Montessori Teachers. Ed. 1. Lynn, MA: Sandpiper Press LLC, 2007.

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