Modern society has been equipped with the technology that has revolutionized almost every aspect of life. In Science and Medicine, latest advancements have become a remedial source for various health related problems. However, it is well known that controversy exists or surrounds science through several forms.
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Due to this, new debates have invaded the society giving a problematic twist to a new invention or discovery. One such issue to be described here is cloning. Cloning is a strategy to reproduce and develop a living organism by retaining all its identical features (Revel, 2000). This would mean obtaining a Photostat copy of the original one.
Basically cloning experiments are related to field of genetics. The area of cloning that has been under debate is Reproductive Cloning. This is achieved when nuclei from cells of adult animals get transferred into the enucleated oocytes of nuclei from embryonic cells (Revel, 2000). The embryonic cells may be of different animal. As such, this would lead to creation of surrogate mothers which has become a questionable issue and initiated the debate.
Hence the research question is how far the reproductive cloning has taken various controversial shapes since its inception. The purpose of bibliography is to find appropriate information relevant to the debate under question and provide a solution with a convincing justification. The criteria used in selecting the sources is that the articles should highlight a questionable issue relevant to the cloning in the description.
The sources that are related to the cloning but does not highlight issue or debate and that seem to promote the utility and acceptance of cloning are excluded. The first description in the scientific literature is that of sheep cloning from an adult cell in1997 (Revel, 2000). According to this study, its impact on the benefits or utility of reproductive cloning in human medicine has led to the imagination of creating human individuals (Revel, 2000).
On moral grounds and irrelevant worries, it has received wide condemnations due to the wrong belief that genetic identity is nothing but two personalities who share identical features (Revel, 2000). This article is very useful as it has not only given the basic definition of reproductive cloning but also highlighted how the first discovery has opened a new gateway to controversies.
The relevance of the research question to the topic can be better strengthened by categorizing the articles on Human cloning. This is because it is well known that controversies have arisen when a new technology was put forward related to Human cloning.
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This would cause disturbances to the ethical or legal values in the society (Bernstein, 2002). Hence, a paradigm for enabling the law to react in conditions when new technology invades the society needs to be given prior importance (Bernstein, 2002). This may be due o the fact that unmarried women would come up in the society as surrogate mothers in the twenty-first century (Bernstein, 2002).
This article is very useful as it is highlighting about the consequences of cloning in terms of ethical and legal issues and creation of surrogacy.
Lee (2004) described that the choice of reproductive cloning although is a human right, necessary restrictions need to be imposed to save the decorum of human society by maintaining a balanced approach.
Since the in depth knowledge regarding cloning technique is not totally adequate, the application is more likely to contribute to risk rather than benefits (Lee,2004).
Further this article, emphasized the need of a ban on cloning which is appropriate. Hence, this article is useful in the present context that it has raised questions regarding the value of human dignity and rights when cloning is implemented.
Parker (2003) described that cloning has received widespread concerns from different spokespersons at various places and these do not agree with one another. These may deviate the moral values and tend to increase the vagueness about the basic research on which the controversies and policy decisions finally depend (Parker, 2003).
This article has also made it clear that regulations imposed by authorities often have conflicting opinions that imbalance the issue and promote the opposite principles rather than supporting the main principles on the honest side (Parker, 2003).
This article is useful in the present context as it has well documented the pros and cons of various opinions on a common platform. It has furnished insights on the continuing debate cloning have been receiving.
Camporesi and Bortolotti (2008) emphasized on the negative attempts made in 2006 with regard to the human reproductive cloning. This was compared with the therapeutic cloning and shed light on the possible chances of human cloning in the near future when it becomes acceptable on all grounds (Camporesi and Bortolotti, 2008).
This article has strengthened the policy issues that interfere and contribute to the difficulties in accessing the human reproductive cloning on moral perspective (Camporesi and Bortolotti, 2008).
However, debate is still fresh unless human reproductive cloning was made successful by random interactions between different policy speakers and institutions(Camporesi and Bortolotti, 2008). Because they could guide the vivid rules on the utility keeping in view of disagreements, clear moral values, and widespread people contacts(Camporesi and Bortolotti, 2008).
This article is useful in the present context as it has shed light on the debate and its effect on the society inspite of successful of imaginations that cloning would be a reality in the near future.
- Revel, M. “Ongoing research on mammalian cloning and embryo stem cell technologies bioethics of their potential medical applications.” Isr Med Assoc J 2 (2000):8-14.
- Bernstein, G. “The socio-legal acceptance of new technologies: a close look at artificial insemination.” Wash Law Rev 77.4 (2002):1035-120.
- Lee, M, L. “The inadequacies of absolute prohibition of reproductive cloning.” J Law Med. 11.3 (2004):351-72.
- Parker ,M. Reasoning about embryos, cloning and stem cells: let’s get more clear and distinct. Monash Bioeth Rev. 22.1 (2003) 8-17.
- Camporesi, S and Bortolotti, L. “Reproductive cloning in humans and therapeutic cloning in primates: is the ethical debate catching up with the recent scientific advances?” J Med Ethics. 34.9 (2008):e15.