The state of Ohio, sometimes nicknamed Buckeye State, is located in the midwest of the United States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Kentucky. Across the Ohio River is Indiana, Michigan, and Lake Erie (Fact Monster, 2021). The state is formed by mostly flat land with some hills near West Virginia and gorge-cut plateaus near the Ohio River. Before the settlers, much of the land was also covered in forests. There are currently 11,613,423 people living in Ohio and the three major cities are Columbus, Cleveland, and Cincinnati.
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The first European explorer to arrive in Ohio was Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle. The Ohio region then became British property after the French and Indian Wars in 1669. Only after the revolutionary war, in 1783, the U.S. obtained the state. The first permanent settlement was Marietta and was established in 1788. It became the capital of the Northwest Territory. One of the first English-speaking explorers to travel to Ohio was Christopher Gist in 1749. After that, a number of British traders began to do business in Ohio but were driven out by the French.
Ohio entered the Union on March 1, 1803 and was the 17th state to do so. Although in 1802 Thomas Jefferson signed the Enabling Act of 1802, Ohio only gained real statehood on February 19, 1803, after Jefferson endorsed Congress’s decision to do so (Ohio History Central 2021). Before the arrival of Europeans, the state’s regions were home to many tribes such as the Erie, the Iroquois, the Miami, the Shawnee, and the Ottawa.
After taking the land from the French after the French and Indian Wars, the British hold over Ohio was shaken by the Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763-1766). It was the Treaty of Paris, 1783, that ceded the region to the United States. Over the next years during which many companies used the land for their work, the Native Americans resisted the settlers but were defeated in the battle of Fallen Timbers (1794). During the Civil War, a famous raid of John Hunt Morgan took place in 1863. Morgan and most of his men were captured.
The state is mostly made of planes but has five distinct regions. The first is the Great Lakes Plains region which is low and fertile (National Geographic Kids 2021). The Lake Erie Shoreline is sandy, made up of clay beaches, and sand dunes along the shore. The Till Plains are large and in the west and center of Ohio, they are also fertile. The highest point in Ohio is Campbell Hill, although it’s not tall enough to be considered a mountain. The Appalachian Plateau is the largest region in Ohio and covers the entire east. The majority of it includes high hills and deep valleys. The Bluegrass Region is a small southern area with steep cliffs and more valleys. An interesting feature is the Serpent Mound Meteor Crater which could have been formed by a million-year-old meteor crash.
Because of the fertile soil that can be found in many places around Ohio, the state produces soybeans, corn, oats, wheat, hay, fruits such as apples, peaches, strawberries, and grapes. Dairy farming, sheep, and hog raising produce more than half of Ohio’s farm income. Not only does Ohio rank fourth in lime production but also places high in sand, gravel, and crushed stone manufacture. Ohio has natural resources that produce plastic, rubber, and manufactured metals. Tourism is another important part of Ohio’s economy. In 2009, attractions such as the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, the Indian burial grounds at the Mound City Group National Monument, Perry’s Victory International Peace Memorial, the Pro Football Hall of Fame at Canton, and other attractions brought in $36 billion.
Ohio has a long history from the earliest roots of the Native Americans living in the region to the Civil War and the modern-day. The state is a leader in many areas such as the manufacturing sector and farming. It is also home to many important cultural landmarks that tell its own history, the history of the Native Americans and the conflict between the French and British settlers.
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“Ohio.” Fact Monster. 2021. Web.
“Ohio Statehood.” Ohio History Central. Web.
“Ohio.” National Geographic Kids. Web.