Was there a clear statement of the question, objectives, and aims of the research?
The article provided a clear statement of the question which focused on determining the effects of oral motor stimulation on infants born with complex univentricle anatomy and who required surgery immediately after birth. The aim and objectives of the study were clearly brought out from the beginning. The authors’ objective was to encourage oral motor stimulation on the affected infants (Coker-Bolt, Jarrard, Woodard, & Merrill, 2013).
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Is the problem practically important?
This problem is practically important. In fact, the authors’ desire for children with univentricle anatomy to spend less time in hospital is very significant to both the child and the parents. When infants spend less time in the hospital, the parent is relieved of both financial and emotional stress associated with the healthcare of the child.
What is the Hypothesis?
The hypothesis of the study is that time to achieve full oral feeding and length of hospital stay is significantly shorter for infants with univentricle anatomy who receive oral motor stimulation than those in the comparison group. In essence, the authors believe that providing oral stimulation to the affected infants before and after surgery would improve their recovery in hospitals (Coker-Bolt, Jarrard, Woodard, & Merrill, 2013).
Are the cited sources pertinent to the study?
Based on the sources used by the authors, it is clear that they performed an appraisal of scholarly materials to eventually identify and utilize sources, which are pertinent to the study. The authors utilized over 30 scholarly sources that are peer reviewed. Moreover, the sources consisted only of books and peer-reviewed journals on the subject of study (Coker-Bolt, Jarrard, Woodard, & Merrill, 2013).
Is the review too broad or too narrow?
The review is specific to the objectives of the study. In fact, the authors ensured that they utilized evidence-based practice to test their hypothesis, which they left open for further scrutiny. The review was objective, specific, and focused on the effects of oral-motor stimulation on affected infants. It did not go beyond the boundaries of its confines.
Are the references recent?
The sources utilized in the paper are quite recent. In fact, from the 30 scholarly sources, only one journal is dated 1990, the rest begin from 2001 up to 2011. From this view, it is quite clear that the sources are recent. In this regard, it is clear that the research conforms to current health care norms.
Was a theoretical perspective identified?
The authors utilized theoretical perspectives, which deal with performing oral stimulations as outlined by various theorists. For instance, in the description of the oral motor exercise, the authors utilized the oral motor stimulation protocol. Moreover, the authors mentioned current theoretical perspectives on nutrition and oral feeding of infants with univentricle anatomy (Coker-Bolt, Jarrard, Woodard, & Merrill, 2013).
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Design and procedure
What research methodology was used?
Experimental designs are significant in addressing evaluation questions, which test the effectiveness of programs. The authors employed the use of a quasi-experimental approach with a nonequivalent group design. This kind of research methodology is utilized whenever random assignment is not practical. The experimental design utilized eliminated the limitations of a quasi-experimental posttest design because the group was pre-assessed (Coker-Bolt, Jarrard, Woodard, & Merrill, 2013).
What are the variables?
Variables are objects or ideas to be measured. The variables utilized in the research study composed of birth weight, discharge weight, number of days until surgery, and days to initiation of oral feeding (Coker-Bolt, Jarrard, Woodard, & Merrill, 2013). The other variables utilized in the study included days to attainment of full oral feeds and length of stay in hospital (days).
What is the dependent variable and independent variable?
Dependent variables tend to rely on other variables. That is, they cannot stand-alone. However, independent variables can stand-alone. From the research study, it is observable that dependent variables were utilized in both baseline characteristics and oral feeding milestones (Coker-Bolt, Jarrard, Woodard, & Merrill, 2013). Dependent variable was the weight of the infant while independent variable was time (days).
How was sampling performed?
The quasi-experimental design utilized was done on two group samples. The first group consisted of 18 infants who had received oral motor intervention while the other group consisted of 10 infants who had not received any oral motor intervention. Moreover, out of the 18 infants in the first group, 13 were male while 5 were female. On the other hand, the second group of ten consisted of 9 males and one female. Sampling was not randomized because consent had to be sought from parents of the infants for conduct of the experiment (Coker-Bolt, Jarrard, Woodard, & Merrill, 2013).
Conclusion and implications
Were the implications discussed?
The authors ensured that implications were discussed. In this regard, it was found that baseline variables were comparable in both groups. However, statistically significant difference between the groups was noted in the length of stay of infants. That is, infants without oral stimulation intervention stayed longer in the hospital than their counterparts (Coker-Bolt, Jarrard, Woodard, & Merrill, 2013).
What recommendations were made at the conclusion?
The authors recommended that future research on infants with complex univentricular anatomy should focus mainly on long-term feeding behaviors of such infants who receive oral motor stimulation intervention (Coker-Bolt, Jarrard, Woodard, & Merrill, 2013). Moreover, the authors recommended further studies on oral feeding behaviors of infants with single-ventricle anatomy, among others.
Is it possible to implement these recommendations in practice?
Yes, these recommendations can be implemented if sufficient experimental research is done on the areas mention with positive outcomes. However, this would require intensive research with a move from quasi-experimental design to true experimental designs.
Coker-Bolt, P., Jarrard, C., Woodard, F., & Merrill, P. (2013). The effects of oral stimulation on feeding behaviors of infants born with univentricle anatomy. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 28(1), 64-71.