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Pressure Ulcers Study: Literature Review

Pressure ulcers (also referred to as bedsores) denote the damage of skin due to friction or prolonged pressure (Lam et al., 2018). The condition mainly occurs among patients at the acute care unit since they are immobile. The possibility of developing pressure ulcers is reliant more on the condition of the patient than the attitude of nurses. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in the US is approximately 38% in intensive care units. In writing the literature review, the databases used were Google and online libraries such as EBSCOhost and Emerald.

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Decreasing preventable pressure ulcers is the major goal of public health sectors worldwide. Bedsores have a negative impact on the health and welfare of patients (Harrison, 2013). Reducing pressure ulcers through successful management is intricate and of fundamental significance to patient safety and quality of care.

The effects of pressure ulcers are detrimental to the patient, the legal system, and the already overstrained medical field. The impact varies reliant on the severity of tissue damage, treatment practice, and the general condition of the individual (Spear, 2013). Increased knowledge by health professionals concerning the underlying problem enhances their understanding of the implementation of effective prevention practices with the people at risk.

Pressure ulcers are linked to a high death rate, morbidity, and medical costs. Moreover, the condition has been established to cause poor quality of life, intense pain, affliction, prolonged hospitalization, and in worst cases, death (Mallah, Nassar, & KurdahiBadr, 2015). Though there are numerous nursing interventions regarding pressure ulcers, there is a scarcity of studies on the most effective nursing approach.

While mulling over the best intervention for pressure ulcer reduction and prevention, it is vital to understand that the implementation of a successful practice at the bedside is an exceedingly difficult task. The factor that makes pressure ulcer prevention complex is its being multidisciplinary; that is, nurses, doctors, dieticians, and members of the patient’s family are among those who require being an investment (Preventing pressure ulcers in hospitals, 2014). Furthermore, the prevention of bedsores should be customized since every patient is different. Thus, care has to tackle their distinctive needs.

Prevention approaches for pressure ulcers start with the recognition of high-risk people. Most of the interventions include numerous support surfaces (for instance, mattresses, incorporated bed systems, and cushions, to mention a few), nutrition, and skincare (Qaseem, Mir, Starkey, & Denberg, 2015). Health professionals should arrive at individualized decisions anchored in risk assessment on whether to employ a single or multi-component strategy to prevent bedsores in patients.

Developing hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (hapus) has been connected to immobilization and lengthy stays in hospitals. In their study, Lam et al. (2018) sought to assess effective measures of reducing hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. Some of the preventive approaches for bedsores encompass pressure-decreasing beds, facilitated nutritional support, compulsory two-hour alteration of posture, examination by wound care nurses, and education to healthcare professionals. Such approaches as the provision of specialized equipment and educational approaches were associated with a considerable reduction in the prevalence rates of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

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The likelihood of developing pressure ulcers depends more on the condition of the patient than the attitude of caregivers. Bedsores present an overwhelming burden to the healthcare system and the economy at large. One of the most effective approaches to preventing the condition is enhanced risk assessment. The management of pressure ulcers calls for individualized practice and education of caregivers.


Harrison, T. (2013). Preventing pressure ulcers: How to implement a change package to improve pressure ulcer management. Web.

Lam, C., Elkbuli, A., Benson, B., Young, E., Morejon, O., Boneva, D.,… McKenney, M. (2018). Implementing a novel guideline to prevent hospital-acquired pressure ulcers in a trauma population: A patient-safety approach. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 226(6), 1122-1127.

Mallah, Z., Nassar, N., & KurdahiBadr, L. (2015). The effectiveness of a pressure ulcer intervention program on the prevalence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers: Controlled before and after study. Applied Nursing Research, 28(2), 106-113.

Preventing pressure ulcers in hospitals. (2014). Web.

Qaseem, A., Mir, T. P., Starkey, M., & Denberg, T. D. (2015). Risk assessment and prevention of pressure ulcers: A clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine, 162(5), 359-369.

Spear, M. (2013). Pressure ulcers: What are the implications? Plastic Surgical Nursing, 33(3), 147-149.

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