CDC is a US agency that contributes to the national mission by conducting critical science and providing health information that protects the country from expensive and dangerous health issues and responding to arising threats. It is a disease control and prevention agency that strives to save lives and protect individuals from health threats. The HP 2020 is an objective that forges towards ensuring healthy lives among adults through tobacco use reduction. Reports indicate that tobacco use ranks among the highest causes of death in the country, including preventable diseases (Healthy People 2030, 2020). This situation is dangerous in the nation as it affects productivity levels and economic stability. This paper examines the adult life stage and Health People 2020 objective’s statistics at the national, state, and county levels, health promotion, health belief model, initiatives, and registered nurses’ roles.
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Section 1: United States New York State and Oneida County Statistics
The United States research indicates tobacco’s contribution to high death rates in preventable diseases, including disability. According to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 20.1% of American adults aged eighteen years and above have used at least one cigarette form (Healthy People 2030, 2020). More than 16 million of the US adult population lives with a smoking-related illness (Healthy People 2030, 2020). Types of tobacco use include cigars, e-cigarettes, cigarillos, regular pipes, and hookah. Some factors such as ethnicity, age, education level, annual household income, and sex depict some groups using tobacco higher than others. Additionally, several population-level interventions reduce tobacco use, including mass media campaigns, price increase, and smoke-free regulations.
According to the 2019 report on tobacco use’s statistical depictions presents men as most inclined to cigarette smoking as women (Healthy People 2030, 2020). It indicates that about every 15 adult men out of a hundred use tobacco. About 12% of adult women record cigarette smoking. Basing on the age factor, individuals aged 18-24 years and 65 and above record low tobacco use levels compared to the 25-64 age range (Healthy People 2030, 2020). The racial aspect portrayed the non-Hispanic Asians at the lowest level in cigarette smoking while the non-Hispanic Indians were at a higher rank (Healthy People 2030, 2020). Other factors include education level and income status of the individuals. The report indicated the annual low-income households and general level education individuals’ higher cigarette smokers than the graduate holders and higher-income houses.
At the state level, New York depicts tobacco usage as higher among adult men than females. The 2018 report presents New York State as having 14.2 % of individuals smoking a cigarette while the national level involved 17.1% in 2016 (Healthy People 2030, 2020). Other tobacco product usage in 2015, such as e-cigarette smoking in the state, depicted 1.6%, while cigars revealed 2.2% and smokeless tobacco 0.6% (Truth Initiative, 2020). The report also indicated that tobacco use increased healthcare costs and tobacco prevention each fiscal year (Truth Initiative, 2020). New York’s tobacco laws include high taxation forging towards the reduction of its use. These moves contribute to the adoption of a healthy lifestyle among the affected individuals.
At the local level, Oneida County advocates for tobacco use prevention among its citizens. The recent report indicated a decline in the smoking statics compared to the previous years. In 2013, reports depicted 22% of the Oneida county citizens under smoking while in 2016, the rate declined to 14.6%, while the national level had 17% adult smokers (Rome Daily Sentinel, 2019). The declining qualities emanate from the county advocating for prevention through several measures, including free cessation lessons at the healthcare facilities and observance of the “World No Tobacco Day” that encompasses education on healthy tips.
Section 2: Principles of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
Health promotion entails the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels with the encompassing disease prevention aspect. The primary health promotion level involves providing specific disease protection measures, including interventions and law enforcement concerning tobacco use among vulnerable communities (Savage et al., 2018). Intervention activities such as counseling and educating the general public on tobacco use dangers promote healthy living among the citizens (Gázquez Linares et al., 2019). Nurses play an essential role in encouraging the patients to adopt healthy lifestyles through proper dieting and avoiding substances that jeopardize their health. The counseling intervention should focus on the adults in the community who record high percentages of tobacco use. The adults need to understand the risk issues encompassing tobacco use, including the infants’ poor health among those in the childbearing age bracket.
The secondary health promotion principle focuses on screening and early detection of a harmful situation. Additionally, this level involves several activities, including early disease treatment and delaying impacts of advanced illness. The secondary health promotion’s primary purpose is to detect diseases before symptoms manifest while preventing the patient’s probability of recording serious health issues (Muladore et al., 2018). This level is essential among the tobacco use adult patients. The nurses detect early-stage disease indications such as cancer, heart diseases, and lung issues that do not depict apparent symptoms through screening activities. This situation allows for early treatment interventions and directives on healthy lifestyles. The adults under tobacco use who undergo screening that ensures detection of preventable diseases ensure healthy lifestyles through treatment and adhering to the nurses’ directives.
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Tertiary health promotion is the optimum function that fosters good health through long-term treatment measures. It involves several activities such as rehabilitation and patient education. This level focuses more on treatment rather than prevention as the encompassing situation is irreversible. The disease establishment at this level requires minimization of detrimental effects in the process and optimal health maintenance (Pérez-Fuentes et al., 2018). The nurses concentrate on ways that enable the patient to survive and accomplish daily activities while under rehabilitation. Many adults at the United States’ rehabilitation centers emanate from tobacco use complications that entail late detection. This stage is essential in providing rehabilitation services and ensuring healthy living to the patients.
The three principles entail some differences. The primary focuses on the various suggestions concerning attaining a healthy lifestyle and preventive measures before disease occurrence (Muladore et al., 2018). The secondary level encompasses screening and detection during the early stages before severe conditions. The primary and secondary levels ensure the prevention of extreme conditions, while the tertiary level works on already progressed illness by reducing the probabilities for further complications. The three principles are equally essential and promote healthy lifestyles by impacting health promotion in nursing.
Section 3: Health Belief Model and Its Impact on Health Promotion
The health belief model is a theoretical behavior change that focuses on health promotion. The model developed in the 1950s in the United States under the health service and stood out among the heath theories explaining behaviors under research (Sreeramareddy et al., 2018). It entails six key components: perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy. The perceived susceptibility aspect implicates that individuals are likely to change their behavior through the belief of contracting a particular disease (Pérez-Fuentes et al., 2018). For instance, the adults that use tobacco must understand the possibility of developing conditions such as diabetes and lung illness to seek screening services.
Perceived severity refers to the feelings of conditions’ seriousness and beliefs concerning the untreated levels. This situation includes the medical and social consequences of pain, disability, death, family constraints, and working inability (Harris et al., 2019). The tobacco use adults under this component are likely to think in line with pain and death aspects in the medical perspectives while perceiving family issues and establishing unstable relations with individuals advocating for substance elimination.
The third component is perceived benefits, which implies that individual’s decision and behavior change depending on several factors. It focuses on a condition’s susceptibility, severity, and other beneficial aspects in behavior change. An adult under tobacco use is likely to base on financial issues and family values in the behavior change move. This situation includes seeking medical attention and complying with the nurses’ direction on a healthy lifestyle (Muladore et al., 2018). The perceived barrier indicates the belief in negative aspects concerning particular health actions. Under this condition, substance addicts identify and eliminate perceived barriers through misfortune correction, seeking assistance, and reassurance.
The cues to action aspect entail different strategies that implicate change readiness. This component relates to the previous health belief model components indicating possibilities in embracing change. It promotes information acquisition and establishes appropriate reminder systems that forge towards healthy living (Muladore et al., 2018). Lastly, the self-efficacy component displays confidence in action taking. This aspect is essential in promoting healthy behaviors as individuals who attain confidence are more likely to seek medical intervention in doubtful situations. Adults who have high self-efficacy while under tobacco use are more likely to have lower anxiety levels and demonstrate desired behavior such as seeking medical attention and advice on healthy lifestyles. Teaching from nurses assist individuals to quite unhealthy behaviors.
The nurses play a significant role in health promotion by creating awareness among the adults regarding tobacco use consequences. They involve in various programs and campaigns targeting the vulnerable population encompassing counseling and education activities. This progression helps in the population adopting beneficial decisions. Additionally, the nurses participate in preventive and rehabilitation services depending on their level of condition severity.
Section 4: National, State, and Local Initiatives in Place to Achieve the HP2020 Objective
The United States strives towards achieving the healthy people 2020 objective entails three significant areas. The first component is the tobacco use prevalence, where the policy implementation limits the adults’ access and initiation to harmful use. The second aspect pertains to healthcare delivery changes by adopting strategies and policies that increase accessibility, affordability, and smoking rehabilitation provisions (Healthy People 2030, 2020). Thirdly, the government ensures policies such as the tobacco products price increase (Harris et al., 2019). This situation will limit individual access to the drugs minimizing the encompassing consequences. Another aspect involves enacting smoke-free regulations. Also, the health framework promotion requires an increase in the clinical care services regarding all smokers’ access to cessation treatment. Other contributing factors are implementing viable anti-tobacco campaigns and reducing tobacco advertisements (Gázquez Linares et al., 2019). The national goal entails funding the substance abuse programs in the CDC- recommended levels. Tobacco use prevention among adults and helping users to quit promotes the American’ quality of life. Additionally, individuals who quit smoking enhance positive living by eliminating premature death and encompassing health risks.
The New York state stipulates initiatives under different categories focusing on healthy people achievement among the adult smokers. The state stipulates rules that ensure high taxation regarding tobacco products. This policy contributes to the state’s ranking among the first high taxing countries in the nation. New York provides laws on clean indoor air prohibiting individuals from smoking in public and private workplaces, allowing the practice in cigar bars (Truth Initiative, 2020). The government also prohibits flavored e-cigarettes and allows tobacco products to comply with the American drug administration policies. The licensing laws prohibit pharmacies from selling tobacco products while requiring the sales operators to have an active license. The 2018 reports indicate a higher number of adult smokers quitting the practice (Healthy People 2030, 2020). The provisions in the care act that covers all tobacco cessation medication through Medicaid contribute to many adults’ ability to seek health services. The state’s insurance commissioner’s issuance of directives ensures comprehensive tobacco cessation coverage in the preventive turn forges towards health promotion.
The Oneida local county’s initiatives, the healthy people 2020 goal achievement, involve setting up quit-smoking classes that public health offers to the residents (Truth Initiative, 2020). This provision is a significant activity that caters to adult awareness of the dangers emanating from tobacco use, enhancing health promotion. The county observes world tobacco prevention day and ensures that the community members learn the threats emanating from the substance while forging towards actualizing a smoke-free environment (Rome Daily Sentinel, 2019). All these initiatives focus on the adults’ healthy lifestyle promotion as they record the highest percentage in tobacco use.
Section 5: Roles of the Registered Professional Nurse Directly Related to Adult Tabaco Use
Nurses play a significant role in the healthcare system, ensuring disease prevention and treatment. Through advocacy and communication, the nurses realize other encompassing roles towards patient service. The first role is patient advocacy. Under this role, the nurses promote issues such as dignity upholding all through the treatment and care process (Yu et al., 2019). The advocacy aspects include working together with different stakeholders and making suggestions concerning the patient’s treatment plan. This nursing role is key in tobacco use as adults learn various aspects concerning the treatment. These patients are unfamiliar with the right healthcare progression, and the nurses intervene by choosing the most appropriate advancement that will not jeopardize lives.
Another nursing profession’s role is the planning of care, where the nurses participate directly in the decision-making process involving patients. This role requires the nurses to think while addressing the problems to ensure viable recommendations critically (González et al., 2018). The adult individuals recording long-term tobacco use receive medical intervention through the nursing role requiring them to comply with the medical stipulation. This situation allows the nurses to focus on one individual, and hence, generate health promotion. Through careful planning, the healthcare activities are practiced throughout as the nurses work on the rehabilitation process of a patient who developed health conditions due to smoking effects.
The third role is patient care, where the nurses ensure prevention and patient-wellness during the treatment process. Under this role category, the nurse services extend the medical administration capacity and therapies. The adults are suffering from conditions emanating from tobacco use benefit from this role. The nurses are responsible for holistic patient care that encompasses several aspects, including developmental, psychosocial, and spiritual needs (Yu et al., 2019). The adults experiencing pain and illness development emanating from smoking practices have better chances of benefiting from the program activities. Through the interaction sessions with healthcare practitioners, these individuals are likely to improve steadily.
Lastly, the communication role realizes many achievements regarding patient health. The nurse identifies the illness, medical, and treatment requirements and communicates to the patient. This activity entails the nursing role practice towards achieving health promotion by explaining the different issues and strategies, which contribute to the healing process (González et al., 2018). The communication aspects cultivated the nurse’s education skills and knowledge. This situation of communication is evident from nurses’ daily routine as they spent most of their time advising and explaining preventive strategies, available immunizations, safety, dietary, or nutrition values. The educating aspect is useful as the nurses participate in campaigns against tobacco use. As they interact with patients, they create awareness of substance abuse dangers (Sreeramareddy et al., 2018). Interaction with adult individuals who have developed conditions due to smoking only calls medical intervention and advice on better living standards that could not result in serious consequences.
In conclusion, in the United States the middle-aged adults have higher smoking levels than younger and older generations. Basing on various aspects such as education, income levels, age, and ethnicity such issue tends to show the low income which is due to poor education attained by individuals who have been smoking, while graduates and high-income households are associated with low smoking levels. In the sex factor, the practice is prevalent among men than women. The non-Hispanic Native Americans record high instances of smoking while non-Hispanic Asians indicate low-level usage. The state and local communities present high percentages among adult substance use than the older and young generations at a lower rate. The health promotion principles encompass the primary, secondary and tertiary levels. The primary level focuses on disease prevention measures, while the secondary one entails screening and early detection of illnesses preventing severe conditions. The tertiary level involves treatment and rehabilitative measures that focus on life-sustaining moves that prevent compromising situations. The health model encompasses six components depicting beliefs that have health promotion implications. The state, national, and country levels entail initiatives that forge toward realizing a tobacco-fee community. The American nation and New York State adopt legal legislation on smoking prevention. The Oneida community employs public health to create awareness and participation in world-day campaigns contributing to the enlightenment measures. Lastly, the nursing profession involves four key roles: planning of care, patient care, advocacy, and communication through education ventures. The four roles contribute to preventive measures and disease recovery, ensuring healthy living.
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