The article reviews the characteristics of the states and the systems of systems. Also, the article seeks to understand the role of shared states when developing systems Precisely, the article is based on a study of how modeling systems of systems is critical in strategic preparedness, response, and recovery from disastrous events.
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The article emphasizes the need to ensure that recovery in systems of systems retains its original status after catastrophic events. From the article, it is clear that strategic preparedness is a decision-making process. In this regard, strategic preparedness must be initiated in advance before a natural or human-oriented disaster occurs.
The aim of strategic preparedness is to reduce disaster consequences in terms of recovery time, cost, and suffering. The article reviews the infrastructure systems of systems as exemplified through the input-output model (IIM) and phantom system models (PSM). The two models are critical in understanding the modeling of systems of systems.
The author reviews several definitions related to natural disasters and human-induced catastrophes. The author insightfully defines systems of systems as the combination of communities, organizations, and human-cyber-physical infrastructure (Haimes, 2012). The author defines the details and characteristics of the systems of systems concept.
From the article, the author emphasizes on how governments and community entities must negotiate for strategic preparedness about natural and human-induced catastrophes. In this regard, the author discusses the role of state variables as a way of understanding how systems of systems are modeled. Therefore, the reader understands that systems are functions, decisions, and other relevant inputs.
Understanding the role of state variables exposes the vulnerability and resilience of the system when subjected to catastrophes. Also, this explains probable risks that various natural and artificial events can pose to the systems. The author reviews the importance of modeling disasters about systems of systems.
Also, the author discusses the phantom system models (PSMs) and a case study on shared states (Haimes, 2012). However, the case study is based on subsystems of the FAA NextGen systems of systems. The author focuses on modeling systems of systems through meta-modeling that is efficiently done by sharing decisions and states (Haimes, 2012).
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From the article, an insightful study on the importance of strategic preparedness and response to disasters is done. Finally, the author explains the significance of the IIM that is used to model independent systems of systems.
The author intends to relay the message to government agencies, students, environmentalists, researchers, communities, and disaster preparedness organizations. The article also provides insightful information to disaster management students and researchers interested in further studies based on the same topic.
Disaster planning issues
According to the article, disaster planning is determined by the states of the system. In this regard, shared states and systems of systems play a critical role in planning and decision-making processes. Moreover, understanding how shared states in systems of systems contribute to strategic planning is prioritized. Also, the contribution of systems of systems in response and recovery from disasters is considered the ultimate objective in strategic preparedness.
Moreover, the above must be implemented prior to the occurrence of natural or human-oriented disasters (Haimes, 2012). Disaster planning must be aimed at reducing recovery time, suffering, and the cost associated with strategic preparedness. Reducing risk levels and tradeoffs is an important issue of consideration. It is the objective of disaster planning to control and limit the accepted levels of disaster risks and tradeoffs.
Aspects of recovery
From the article, the author indicates that recovery of time used in disaster preparedness and response, which is important.
The author emphasizes the need to recover on cost used in disaster preparedness (Haimes, 2012). In most cases, disaster preparedness is expensive, and a limit on how finance is used is important. Recovery in terms of reduced community suffering is a major goal of disaster preparedness and management. Finally, recovery by reducing the levels of risk and tradeoffs is discussed in the article.
Application to the course
The article provides insightful information to environmental studies. Indeed, the article supports the information on disaster and recovery planning, which is provided as the course material. The article presents a diverse perspective on the significance of strategic preparedness in case of natural and artificial disasters. Moreover, the article gives a scholarly foundation for further studies about disaster preparedness and recovery.
Expanding main points
The author can expand the explanation of the systems of systems concept. The current definition of the concept as a combination of communities, organizations, and human-cyber-physical infrastructure is vague to the reader. Moreover, an in-depth analysis of the input-output model (IIM) and phantom system models (PSM) would be essential in understanding the concept of modeling systems of systems.
Using more than one case study would be appropriate in creating an emphasis on disaster planning and recovery. Also, the use of secondary sources and peer-reviewed articles and journals would create an impression of a well-researched topic.
Haimes, Y.Y. (2012). Strategic preparedness for recovery from catastrophic risks to communities and infrastructure systems of systems. Risk Analysis, 32(11), 1834-1845.