The last several decades could be characterized by the increased importance of the problem of drug abuse and addictive behaviors. The scale of the problem is so significant, it could be considered one of the major concerns of the modern society. Statistics show that the number of people using various substances and characterized by the addicted behavior increases every year (Substance-related and addictive disorders, 2016). The given threatening tendency poses a great risk for the health of the nation as it undermines the basis of societys further evolution and contributes to the deterioration of the situation. That is why the health agencies and other organizations belonging to the given sector tend to classify the most common disorders for specialists to be able to work with them and provide the most efficient treatment. Furthermore, the evolution of science and appearance of new substances condition the necessity of the monitoring of the current situation and introduction of new points into the list.
Analyzing the background of the given situation, there are several important concerns that should be minded. First, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) provides a list of addictive behaviors and substances that could result in the appearance of various disorders. Yet, there are constant alterations peculiar to the given register as the appearance of new substances predetermines the acquisition of new addictions and disorders. Furthermore, the given manual is needed to cooperate and create the strategic plan needed to create the most efficient solution and implement it into the real-life environment (Addictive disorders, n.d.). However, there are still numerous debates related to the disorders included in the list and the reasons that predetermined this very inclusion. Nevertheless, the analysis of the most common disorders will contribute to the better understanding of its nature.
Speaking about the DSM-5 guide, its great impact on the classification and diagnosis of the above-mentioned disorders should be admitted. At the moment, it is considered the main tool used by American Psychiatric Association for the provision of treatment, recommendations, and payment for health care providers. In this regard, the introduction of new points or appearance of a new vision has an outstanding practical importance as it determines the functioning of specialists working in the given sphere. DSM-5 was created in 2013 under the influence of special conference focused on the determination of the main substances that result in the appearance of addictions and substance-related disorders (Substance-related and addictive disorders, 2016). Since that time, the list has experienced numerous changes and acquired new points needed to accomplish more precise classification of the existing problem.
At the moment, DSM-5 provides a list of certain disorders that appear because of the substances abuse (Thomasius, Sack, Strittmatter, & Kaess, 2014). One should admit the appearance of gambling and tobacco-related points in the list. Their inclusion is conditioned by the necessity to investigate every case to provide the most efficient treatment and deliver the appropriate care needed to mitigate the negative impact of substances use and assure that a person will be able to continue his/her functioning and preserve his/her quality of life (Horvath, Misra, Epner, & Galen, n.d.). Additionally, one should also recognize the fact that it is not the final version as the evolution of science predetermines the appearance of new substances that will impact a persons well-being and quality of life. That is why its investigation is crucial for the better understanding of the main tendencies.
Alcohol dependence comes first in the list. It could be considered the oldest type of disorder as the substance has been in usage for many years. In coherent society, alcohol abuse is considered a great problem. According to statistics, about 88% of people aging 18 or older admitted the usage of this substance at some point in their lifetime (Alcohol facts and statistics, n.d.). The scale of the problem is so significant that it is possible to admit the epidemic that impacts all states. For this reason, the given list includes alcohol abuse and considers it to be one of the most important problems that exist nowadays. People characterized by the alcohol abuse suffer from numerous mental disorders that come from the nature of the effect this substance has on the functioning of the most important systems. Specialists should give a special attention to treatment as there are numerous approaches to it.
Opioid dependence is another point in the register provided by DSA-5. It could be defined as the abuse of substances that contain opioids in their structure. These might be either opium or other synthetically produced drugs that trigger certain mechanisms in the body and result in the appearance of addictions and mental disorders. The pernicious impact of this substance could hardly be overestimated as it conditions total destruction of an individuals personality and introduces new behavioral patterns. At the same time, the acquisition of addictive disorders is the main side effect of the usage of this very substances. In this regard, the precise investigation of the main aspects of the given point is crucial to help people suffering from it to recover and continue their efficient functioning.
Sedative dependence might develop among people who suffer from various psychological disorders. For instance, patients experiencing dejection or insomnia could be prescribed sedative medicines to mitigate the negative aftermath of illness and help to avoid the development of further complications. However, the abuse of these substances might result in the appearance of addictive behaviors and disorders that could destroy a persons individuality and contribute to the acquisition of significant shifts in mentality. For this reason, the introduction of this very group to the list is crucial as it helps to investigate the problem and provide an efficient strategy to help people recover and refuse the usage of sedative medicines. Besides, sedative dependence should be considered a great threat as its appearance could hardly be noticed by a person; however, its negative impact is obvious.
Cocaine dependence is another point in the list which has the great impact on the functioning of an individual and might condition significant alterations of a psyche and acquisition of addictive disorders. At the moment, cocaine abuse is one of the major concerns of the modern society. The scale of the problem is so significant that it is vital to find an appropriate solution and guarantee provision of patients with the efficient and high-quality medical care. Availability of this substance and its great danger predetermine the great level of attention devoted to it. People suffering from cocaine abuse have severe addictive disorders that deteriorate the quality of their lives significantly. They also suffer from problems with their health and other accompanying problems. DSM-5 includes this sort of dependence in the list and provides the basis for its treatment.
The following point could be considered controversial as its pernicious impact on peoples health is discussed in scientific literature. However, cannabis dependence is included in the list as it still results in the appearance of altered behavioral patterns and addictive disorders. A number of scientists state that despite numerous attempts to ignore its negative effect on peoples personality, cannabis still poses a great threat to an individuals well-being as it conditions the acquisition of various disorders. Many respondents who use cannabis tend to admit the appearance of irritation, anxiety, or other feelings in case they are not able to obtain the substance (Addictive disorders, n.d.). In this regard, the investigation of cocaine abuse is needed to prevent its further spread and protect people from the negative aftermath.
The evolution of science and pharmacology created the ground for the introduction of a new substance that influences the psyche of a person and alters his/her behavior. Yet, amphetamines abuse could be taken as a new problem that became topical because of the increased popularity of the given substance and its widespread among the youth. Patients suffering from addiction to amphetamines are characterized by tiredness, oscillations in mood, dejection, and other problems. Moreover, an individual consumes all bodys resources and is not able to renew it. For this reason, it is crucial to be able to deal with this sort of addiction and be able to mitigate the negative impact of amphetamine abuse. Numerous addictive disorders might be dangerous for surrounding as new behavioral patterns might pose a great threat for those who cooperate with abusers.
Trying to escape reality and enjoy the altered state of conscience, an individual might also try to consume hallucinogens that impact peoples receptors and psyche by triggering various delusions and creating some alternative reality. The substance that preconditions the appearance of these feelings also has the pernicious impact on peoples physical and mental health. There are numerous available products that could be used to extract this substance. That is why the problem remains topical nowadays and there should be an appropriate solution aimed at the provision of assistance and alteration of the current situation. DSM-5 considers hallucinogen dependence the great threat of the modern age as it promotes the appearance and evolution of addictive disorders that might result in the alteration of psyche and deterioration of an individuals health.
Inhalants could be defined as narcotic substances that have the same effect on a persons individuality some other drugs might promote. Being a comparatively new phenomena, they have already turned into the real trouble that poses a significant threat to peoples health and well-being. At the same time, these drugs might be considered a significant part of the addicted peoples life. Being recognized as a sort of soft drug, inhalants still might trigger the appearance of numerous problems with health and acquisition of addictive disorders that deteriorate the quality of their lives. In this regard, the inclusion of this substance in the list is quite logical as it should be given great attention to mitigate the negative aftermath inhalators might have on people. That is why, DSM-5 responds to the appearance of new threats that appear in the course of societys evolution.
Polysubstance use is another trait of the modern society. It appeared due to the evolution of pharmacology and chemical industry. This addiction could be characterized by several important aspects. First, the pernicious impact of this substance is complicated by the combined character of the effect it produces on persons health and personality. Furthermore, the unique character of this very drug conditions the further significant deterioration of the state of health. A person with polysubstance dependence is addicted to being in an intoxicated state without given a preference to a certain substance (Addictive disorders, n.d.). For this reason, any combination of drugs could be used. A person suffers from the combined impact of all above-mentioned substances. That is why it poses a great threat to peoples security as addictive disorders are rather dangerous.
The phencyclidine use disorder could be defined as the continued use of phencyclidine despite clinically significant distress or impairment (Phencyclidine use disorder, n.d.). People who suffer from this problem are characterized by intoxicated behavior, impulsivity, dangerous risk-taking, or even violent behavior. The acquisition of these addictive disorders comes from the pernicious impact this very substance has on peoples individuality and psyche. In this regard, it is crucial to mitigate the negative impact and help people to recover. DSM-5 includes it in the list because of the outstanding importance of phencyclidine abuse and severe side effects that might pose a great threat for surrounding people. One should realize the fact that it is vital to be able to respond to the given problem and create the efficient strategy that could help to deal with it.
Speaking about addictive disorders, it is also crucial to admit the fact that there is the tendency towards the appearance of a number of new substances every year. Drug trade is a profitable business that guarantees great incomes for manufacturers. That is why there are many new substances that are created to involve new people and guarantee stable revenues. Dependence on unknown substances should be considered another important point of DSM-5 list. It is crucial to be ready to respond to new threats that appear every day. Investigation of a new substance is needed to create the efficient strategy and guarantee peoples recovery. For this reason, introduction of the given point is logical as it helps to devote great attention to it.
One realizes the fact the nicotine abuse could hardly be taken as a serious fault nowadays. According to statistics cigarette smoking results in more than 480000 deaths (Nicotine, n.d.). It means that the given problem poses a great threat to the health of the nation and should be given great attention. Nicotine has become a sort of legal drug that undermines peoples well-being and deteriorates the quality of their lives. At the same time, the current level of attention given to the issue is not enough to attain significant improvement.
Finally, gambling disorder is a new point in the list that appeared under the impact of the rapid growth of video games and spread of amusement machines. People characterized by this sort of addictive disorder might have problems with socialization, cooperation, etc. Moreover, the addiction might condition the appearance of affective state that could trigger aggressive or risky behavior. Society should recognize the great significance of the given issue and its outstanding impact on personality. DSM-5 accepts the potential risk of this problem and recognizes the necessity of the initiation of the change process that could assure the improvement of the current situation.
In conclusion, DSM-5 list should be considered an important guide that could help specialists to obtain the clear image of current problems and realize the main threats posed by various substances. At the moment, the guide provides a list of the most important addictive disorders that could be dangerous for society and surrounding people. Moreover, professionals also respond to the slightest alterations of the situation and introduce new points for them to be able to provide an efficient care and help a person recover. The importance of the given list could hardly be overestimated as it is one of the main guides that is used when working with the given sphere.
Addictive disorders. (n.d.). Web.
Alcohol facts and statistics. (n.d.). Web.
Horvath, T., Misra, K., Epner, A., & Galen, M. (n.d.). The Diagnostic criteria for substance use disorders (addiction). Web.
Nicotine. (n.d.). Web.
Phencyclidine use disorder. (n.d.). Web.
Substance-related and addictive disorders. (2016). Web.
Thomasius, R., Sack, P., Strittmatter, E., & Kaess, M. (2014). Substance-related and addictive disorders in the DSM-5. Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 42(2), Web.