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The Four Levels of the Multiverse by Max Tegmark


The document by Max Tegmark is an assertion that parallel universes by definition are not just imaginations but remain the domain of metaphysics. The discussion on the four levels of the multiverse is explicitly presented by Tegmark. These include level I – Beyond our Cosmic Universe, level II multiverse – Other PostiInflation Bubbles, level III – Quantum Many Worlds and level IV – Other mathematical structures.

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Level I – Beyond our Cosmic Universe

This according to Max is the least controversial multiverse type. This is because we all accept the fact that things that are invisible form part of existence but we could have a chance to view them if we were in a good position. “Beyond our cosmic horizon is routinely used to evaluate the present theories of the modern cosmology though the procedure is not explicitly spelled out” (Tegmark, 2003). “The lesson derived from the study of the multiverse is that this theory has the capacity to be tested and falsified even though the other universes are not visible” (Tegmark, 2003).

The level II multiverse – other post inflation Bubbles

The level II multiverse – other post-inflation Bubbles is predicted by the presently common theory of chaotic eternal inflation. “Inflation within this context refers to “an extension of the big bang theory and ties up many of the loose ends of that theory, such as why the universe is so big, so uniform and so flat and a rapid stretching of space long ago can explain all these and other attributes of in one fell swoop” (Tegmark, 2003). The bubbles show variations in both their state and conditions.

Level III – Quantum Many Worlds

“Quantum many Worlds multiverse is right around us and is a product of the interpretation of the quantum mechanics and this multiverse theory specifies the state of the universe, not in classical terms as in the other theories but in terms of the mathematical object called the wave function” (Tegmark, 2003). This fact is well stated by Tegmark (2003) that “According to the Schrodinger equation, the state evolves over a time in a fashion that mathematicians term as unitary, meaning that the wave function rotates in an abstract- infinite-dimensional space called Hilbert space”.

Level IV – Other Mathematical Structures

This theory buttresses the fact the “fundamental laws that govern our nature remain the same as opposed to the variations of the multiverse projected by the first three levels of multiverse theories” (Tegmark, 2003). This theory projects one fact that the ultimate type of parallel universe opens up in a full realm of possibilities. The differences in the universes are not just a result of location, cosmological properties but also the existing laws of physics.

Three questions

What is the common feature of the four theories as projected by the article?

“A common feature of the all the four multiverses is that the article portends that the simplest and elegant theory takes with it a consideration of parallel universe by default”. (Tegmark, 2003). To deny the fact other universes are non-existent means that you have to come up with unsupported evidence to solidify your assertion.

Which of the four levels of theories will be profoundly affected if the current build quantum computers succeed and how?

Level III – Quantum Many Worlds will register profound effect because exploring the parallelism of the level III multiverse will provide more evidence for the unitarity violation which will ultimately rule out level III theories and assertions.

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What is the general conclusion of cosmologists when they consider theories that are less well established?

They conclude that other universes can have entirely different properties and laws of physics and the presence of the referred universes would explain various strange aspects that form part of their own.


Tegmark, M, 2003. Parallel Universes. Journal of Scientific American.

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StudyCorgi. 2021. "The Four Levels of the Multiverse by Max Tegmark." December 11, 2021.


StudyCorgi. (2021) 'The Four Levels of the Multiverse by Max Tegmark'. 11 December.

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