Poverty is a major economic challenge in many underdeveloped countries. According to Bardhan (2008, p. 5), ‘absolute poverty occurs when individuals are unable to secure their basic needs such as shelter, healthcare, and food’. The other common challenge experienced in the developed world is corruption. This malpractice takes different forms such as dishonesty or engagement in fraudulent activities. Absolute poverty and corruption are some of the major issues affecting Bangladesh. This open letter describes how constitutional, economic, educational, and legal reforms can eradicate absolute poverty and corruption in a developing country such as Bangladesh.
Bangladesh ‘is one of the nations affected by poor democratic frameworks’ (Dubois, 2011, p. 37). Individuals living in poorer neighbourhoods are unable to engage in dialogues that can improve their living conditions. The government is also associated with misconduct and poor governance (Dubois, 2011). Better constitutional and economic changes will promote accountability, gender balance, and transparency in the country.
Poverty ‘in Bangladesh arises from unemployment and lack of adequate education’ (Dollar 2007, p. 4). Poverty has also made it impossible for many people in the country to access proper education. Food insecurity and inappropriate health services have continued to hamper the country’s economic development. The poor do not have access to proper healthcare. Constitutional reforms are relevant to empowering individuals and communities. Politicians and leaders in Bangladesh should embrace new reforms in order to deal with poverty.
Bangladesh is also associated with floods. These floods affect many neighbourhoods and communities in this country. Such floods destroy agricultural farms and crops. Many people sell their lands to overcome this challenge (Bell & Newitt, 2010). This practice has resulted in absolute poverty. Constitutional change will ensure the government addresses every question related to poverty and social injustice. Such reforms will also promote fairness and equality. The reforms will also create labour unions in order to empower workers in the country.
Infrastructure is also a major challenge in the country. Many people are unable to engage in proper economic activities due to the lack of proper road networks. The government has not allocated enough financial resources to construct better roads. According to Bigsten and Levin (2011, p. 4), ‘infrastructure issues in the country continue to affect economic performance’. This situation explains why constitutional reforms will support the economy of this country. Such reforms will make it easier for the government to construct better roads.
Proper economic reforms will ensure the country identifies the best policies to support every community. Many people cannot afford proper housing. The country’s economic structure does not support the changing needs of its citizens. New economic reforms will ensure more people have access to soft loans (Bell & Newitt 2010). Many countries, such as Brazil and India, have embraced better economic incentives in order to support their citizens. Bangladesh should consider the best economic policies in order to deal with the above challenges.
Constitutional reforms will also support the country’s growing population. The country’s ‘population growth rate puts more pressure on every available resource’ (Bigsten & Levin, 2011, p. 4). This has resulted in flooding and erosion. The situation has also affected agricultural productivity in the country. This explains why poverty remains a major issue in many rural areas across the nation. Economic and constitutional reforms will support land management programs. The practice will deal with poverty and population growth (Goldin & Stern, 2012).
Many regions across Bangladesh do not have adequate electricity. The situation has made it impossible for many rural and urban regions to engage in better economic activities. This explains why most of the affected communities remain poor. Rolling blackouts are also common in Bangladesh. This strategy ‘ensures the country does not have a total blackout’ (Rahman & Ashaduzzaman 2005, p. 23). This practice has continued to affect the economic progress of Bangladesh. The practice has discouraged many investors from starting their businesses in the country. Better economic policies will ensure more people have access to electricity. The practice will result in more economic activities, thus promoting economic growth.
China is one of the fast-growing economies today. China ‘uses the best constitutional and economic reforms to address the issue of poverty’ (Dollar, 2007, p. 12). The country is also constructing more dams along the Mekong River in order to produce more electricity. This strategy is necessary because the country has the largest population in the world (Mandal, 2013). South Africa has also adopted new policy measures and reforms in order to promote economic development.
The country’s economic reforms have attracted foreign investors. This practice has made it easier for more people to get employment. Bangladesh should learn new lessons from these countries. Bangladesh should do away with monopolies and uneconomical regulations because they affect economic performance. New reforms will also promote investments and reduce unemployment. Proper economic reforms will also ‘result in better labour laws and agricultural practices’ (Bardhan 2008, p. 12).
Responsible capitalism is also a good practice because it can promote economic sustainability. Many businesses in Hong Kong engage in corporate social responsibility (CSR), thus promoting the welfare of their stakeholders (Parveen 2009). The approach reduces corruption and improves the living conditions of different stakeholders in this developing country. Corporations in Bangladesh should be ready to conserve the environment, deal with climate change, and address the economic issues affecting the country.
Anti-corruption ‘strategies in Bangladesh are associated with lack of transparency and entrenched interests’ (Parnini 2011, p. 9). The law does not promote the best practices towards dealing with high-level corruption. Several organisations continue to investigate corruption in the country. Petty corruption ‘is also common because civil servants also embrace the malpractice’ (Parfitt 2002, p. 65).
Similar legal reforms have made it easier for the Indian government to monitor, capture, and prosecute every corrupt citizen. Legal reforms can improve transparency and accountability. The government of Bangladesh should restructure its legal frameworks in order to boost the level of cooperation and confidence. The reforms should also promote coercive interventions. Such legal reforms should ensure the government allocates enough technological and financial resources to detect all fraudulent activities. Legal reforms ‘will also ensure the government hires competent professionals to improve public trust and confidence’ (Vadlamannati 2008, p. 15).
Legal reforms will also ensure different organisations and agencies empower every citizen. The law must empower every citizen in order to engage in different economic activities. Legal reforms will make sure more people acquire quality agricultural inputs (Dollar 2007). The government should also formulate better legal platforms to promote the living conditions of different communities. The law should also ‘be amended in order to empower women in the country’ (Raihan 2014, p. 9). It ‘should also provide the disabled with more job opportunities’ (Sillitoe 2000, p. 85). Such legal frameworks will reduce the gap between the poor and the rich.
Many children are unable to access quality education due to the lack of the best resources. Developing countries ‘such as Thailand have embraced the best educational reforms in order to support the educational needs of their citizens’ (Raihan 2014, p. 9). Bangladesh can use similar educational reforms in order to deal with absolute poverty and corruption. Educational resources should also be availed to every learner in the country. Education makes it easier for individuals to engage in productive and transparent practices. Education reform will ‘create the best frameworks for future democracy, equality, accountability, and sustainability’ (Sen 2004, p. 17). This practice will ensure the country fights corruption, poverty, and inequality.
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