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The Impact of Socialization on People

Introduction Socialization involves the numerous processes by which new employees learn the organization’s values, beliefs, activities, responsibilities and required behaviors in order to accept their new roles and function effectively within the organization. The relevant roles must be desirable and good for the person to accept the offer. The pivotal role behavior of the newcomer is therefore, to accept and remain as a member of the organization. The employee’s contribution is reimbursed through inducements from the organization in form of salary or fringe benefits (Markham, South, Bonjean, & Corder, 1985) A number of researches have been conducted to examine how a new employee in an organization adjusts to the new environment and the impact brought about by socialization. Socialization has also been examined through the aspects of structure, size and job design in an organization. In addition, it has been shown to have major impact on the organizational settings, culture and team dynamics as the newcomers adjusts in an organization. Their performances are measured through role assignments, cooperation, innovations and the period spent in the organization. On the other hand, effective outcomes in an organization can be achieved when the newcomers are generally satisfied, internally motivated to work and be fully involved in their job. The organization should make informed consent involving the ethical issues so as not to affect the new employees as they adjust to the new environment. For instance, most organization uses mild forms of debasement whereas military academies use strong forms of debasement. This can, however, create fear and intimidation within the organization.

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Background Socialization is shaped by four components: the founders’ values, the industry and business environment, the national culture, and the senior leaders’ vision and behavior. It involves a continuous association between a person and an organization within boundary transitions. Boundary transitions occur when a new employee crosses the organization’s boundary upon joining the organization. Stages of Socialization Socialization is described by three phase model or steps namely, anticipatory socialization, encounter or entry and change. The social process in the anticipatory socialization includes the realities about the organization and the new job, the needs for individual skills and his abilities, sensitivity and values to one’s needs. In the encounter step, values, skills, and attitudes start to shift as new recruit discovers what the organization is truly like. They also manage inter-group role conflicts and seek clarity on their roles. Change and acquisition recruit mature skills and adjust to work group’s values and organizational norms. This model is used by the organizations to influence the role of individual differences, specialty and personality dimensions. Institutionalizing the models has encouraged newcomers to accept the established roles. Analysis Section Sex-based similarities and differences have been used to chiefly explain the management styles in an organization in terms of observable behavior. This approach has provided us with a vast body of invaluable information though several limitations have been noted by Kreitner & Kinicki (1989). In their description of behavior modification, they noted that explicit behavior may be modified by precursor signals and contingent consequences such as goal setting, feedback and rewards. According to their study, the specific behavior may occur more or less often through a systematic manipulation of the environment. Furthermore, needs are physiological or psychological shortcomings that give rise to behavioral responses (Kreitner & Kinicki, 1989). It is therefore useful to examine the differences in needs, instead of observable behaviors, between males and females in an organization as needs may be less influenced by extraneous reasons. As a result the needs for power, affiliation and achievement between males and females have shown to differ both traditionally and in recent studies.

Conclusion This research paper examines the influence of socialization involving the contextual needs between men and women working in an organization. Traditionally, women have been perceived to have greater needs for achievement than men. However, recent studies have confirmed that women, when compared to men have equal or higher needs for achievement. On the other hand, sex-based research involving needs for power shows that men, in general, have higher needs for power than women. Consequently, women managers have proved to have higher needs for power than men who are in same managerial position with them. The needs for affiliation concentrate more on women than men. Typically, females are perceived as having warmer personalities and as being more communicative and people-oriented than men. These characteristics attributes to affiliation needs. However, recent studies have failed to significantly distinguish between men and women managers’ affiliation needs (Markham, South, Bonjean, & Corder, 1985). Theoretically it is predicted that female, with time, will become more like males if occupational conditions are similar. According to socialization theory, an organization is shaped by the employees’ decisions, job related interests and practices which are brought about by gender differences.


Kreitner, R. & Kinicki, A. (1989). Organizational Behavior. Boston: Irwin.

Markham, W. T., South, S. J„ Bonjean, C. M., & Corder, J. (1985). Gender and opportunity in the federal bureaucracy. American Journal of Sociology, 91, 129- 150.

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