The Infant Mortality Issue in India: Possible Solutions

Executive Summary

Infant and child mortality is a global issue that affects many developing countries in the world. In India, these rates have been exceeding the average number of death per 1000 citizens for many years. Although recently the country officials announced that they were able to reduce the number of infant deaths, India has to dedicate more effort towards ensuring that young children in this country receive appropriate health care.

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The analysis of the current programs carried out by governmental, non-profit, and for-profit organizations provides an understanding of the gap in parental education that would help improve the outcomes of the chosen metric. The financial resources allocated by the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) can help develop a program, train professionals, and provide free of charge courses to people living in rural India that would improve the current mortality rates.

The NGO should address this program because the government of India chooses to focus on another important element that affects infant mortality rates – the quality of neonatal and child care within the country. Private organizations would be unable to sustain non-profit educational programs for extended periods because the program would not result in additional revenue for these establishments.

Thus, because UNICEF is part of the United Nations, it is best positioned to address the healthcare needs of children. This organization’s mission is to protect children and ensure that they can grow in safe environments. Besides, UNICEF already finances similar programs in other countries, therefore helping parents around the world gain a better understanding of infant care. UNICEF has the expertise and resources to carry out this plan and raise awareness of infant and child mortality in rural India.

NGO Proposal

Global health threats affect people across the world and can be combatted by using the combined effort of the governmental, private, and non-governmental organizations (NGO). One of the issues that have been affecting India for decades is child mortality in the first several months of life. This paper aims to examine the infant mortality issue in India and create a balanced scorecard for UNICEF that would address the problem.


India’s government acknowledges the problem of infant mortality and dedicates effort towards assessing metrics and developing national programs that would target this health concern. The Indian officials address the issue by financing the Reproductive Child Health (RCH) program and National Health Mission that were developed to address the concerns (“Reducing child mortality in India,” 2017).

The statistics showcase a significant decrease in the number of infant death over the last several years. Nevertheless, according to Narain (2016), “infant mortality rate (IMR) remains unacceptably high” in the country (p. 85). Regardless, the data suggests that India remains among the countries with the highest risk of mortality around the world. According to Rodrigez (2018), the country aims to allocate over $100 billion to this health care issue by 2030.

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The officials created a Center for Public Impact that launched an initiative aimed at improving the facility-based care in healthcare establishments. This is carried out by constructing specialized centers for newborn care across the country (“Reducing child mortality in India,” 2017). The services provided by these public non-profit organizations are care for infants with illnesses that require medical assistance.

Healthcare establishments across India that receive funding from the government carry out the initiatives describes above. Narain (2016) states that private hospitals and medical centers address the problem by providing healthcare services to infants. However, the country lacks subsidized care for those who cannot afford to pay. Non-governmental organizations, such as UNICEF monitor the data and provide government officials with insight on this issue regularly (“UNICEF India,” n.d.).

Also, local organizations create and fund initiatives that target vulnerable populations and help them obtain medical care when necessary. The gap in these services is the prevention of severe health issues that infants and children can develop due to neglect and inability to recognize symptoms. This problem can be addressed by educating the population, especially in rural areas with limited access to information. The financial resources in UNICEF can help establish educational initiates in major villages in India, helping improve the rates of child mortality across the country.

Balanced Scorecard

Current performance indicators include the annual rates of mortality among infants calculated per 1000 children and assessed by the government and non-profit organizations. This metric helps evaluate the country’s progress over the years and see the difference in mortality rates across different regions. Outcome measures for potential improvement include parental education rates, which currently are not examined by the officials. Thus, this area requires improvement because the method will help understand the correlation between the knowledge of parents and the adverse outcomes of child care.

Due to the nature of the issue in question, both governmental and non-governmental organizations address it by investing in medical centers for children, or by subsidizing populations that cannot pay for healthcare services. It is evident that primarily this problem affects the rural community that has limited access to care services. According to Khan and Awan (2017), parental education is among the crucial determinants that affect infant and child mortality. The following bullet points present a balanced scorecard for the proposal and various components that are part of the proposal’s strategic vision.

Financial perspective

  • Seek financial resources from for-profit nonprofit and governmental organizations to fund the development of educational programs that would teach women in rural India how to care for children.
  • Cost categories include hiring personnel (30%), training people (20%), paying for office space (40%), and developing educational materials (10%).
  • Benefits from the program are reduced rates of infant mortality in rural areas.

Customer perspective

  • Ensure that parents in India have sufficient knowledge to identify dangerous conditions, provide first aid, and seek help when their infants require additional medical assistance.

Internal processes

  • Engage parents in the process of learning about childcare.
  • Learn about the challenges and problems that affect infant mortality in rural India.

People development perspective

  • Train local professionals that can consult people on child care-related issues.
  • Advocate for the importance of obtaining additional knowledge in the field of child healthcare within rural India.

Project Evaluation

The following metrics should be used to measure the outcomes of this proposal should be used. Firstly, the organization should assess the number of villages in which UNICEF will be able to establish educational centers. Rochow, Landau-Crangle, Lee, Schünemann, and Fusch (2016) recommend using quality-based indicators when assessing factors that impact child mortality. The evidence presented by the authors suggests that such metrics provide more context to child care issues. Thus, it is necessary to measure the existing knowledge of parents and compare it to the understanding of child care after participation in the program. Besides, the percentage of people seeking healthcare services for their children before and after this intervention should be measured as well.


Overall, this proposal outlines the issue of infant and child mortality in India. Due to the nature of work and mission that UNICEF aims to achieve, this organization is uniquely positioned to fulfill the need for enhanced education in the country. The organization already operates in India and has similar initiatives in other countries; thus it can carry out this project and help India reduce its mortality rates.

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Khan, J. R., & Awan, N. (2017). A comprehensive analysis of child mortality and its determinants in Bangladesh using frailty models. Archives of Public Health, 75, 58. Web.

Narain, J. P. (2016). Public health challenges in India: Seizing the opportunities. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 41(2), 85-8. Web.

Reducing child mortality in India. (2017). Web.

Rochow, N., Landau-Crangle, E., Lee, S., Schünemann, H., Fusch, C. (2016). Quality indicators but not admission volumes of neonatal intensive care units are effective in reducing mortality rates of preterm infants. PLOS ONE, 11(8), e0161030. Web.

Rodrigez, L. (2018). India pledges $100 billion to lower maternal and infant deaths by 2030. Web.

UNICEF India. (n.d.). Web.

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