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Theoretical Perspectives of the Change Models

Theory of Planned Change

Developer: Kurt Lewin (1951).

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Description of the theoretical perspectives

Lewin suggested that change should occur in the environment that compels the participants to accept it. Therefore, the process is split into three key stages (unfreezing, changing, refreezing). Thus, the alterations of the workplace environment and the staff’s organizational behavior can be cemented.

Pros and cons concerning the organizational change

Lewin’s model has been criticized for being too simplistic and, therefore, inappropriate for the corporate environment (Botelho, Kowalski, & Bartlett, 2013). Particularly, the lack of flexibility is considered the most essential flaw. However, the model provides an opportunity for structuring the change process and identifying its stages. Still, the model is widely popular due to its simplicity and wide acceptance.

Advancing Research and Clinical Practice Through Close Collaboration (ARCC)

Developer: Bernadette Mazurek Melnyk (1999).

Description of the theoretical perspectives

The model allows explaining the change processes in the organizational behavior by implementing the EBP approach. Particularly, the Organizational and Readiness Scale is used to assess the organizational culture.

Pros and cons concerning the organizational change

The use of the EBP approach can be considered the greatest advantage of the model suggested by Melnyk. It helps make the framework flexible, and the process of implementing change can be customized to the needs of virtually any organization. Furthermore, it helps evaluate the readiness of the participants. Nevertheless, the model does not suggest any tools for addressing the problems that make the people involved unprepared (Schaffer, Sandau, & Diedrick, 2012).

ADKAR (Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability, Reinforcement)

Developer: The Prosci Company (1998).

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Description of the theoretical perspectives

The ADKAR model requires the completion of four essential stages, which are:

  1. Raising awareness for the necessity to change;
  2. Enhancing the desire to change;
  3. Acquiring knowledge about the ways of changing;
  4. Training the ability to use newly acquired skills and information;
  5. Reinforcing the use of tools for retaining change in the organization.

Pros and cons concerning the organizational change

ADKAR serves as a perfect tool for detailing a personal journey through change. The tool is successfully used to address the needs of an individual by reinforcing their motivation. As a result, a rapid increase in performance rates is expected. However, the framework does not provide the tools for distributing the roles and responsibilities among the managers. As a result, the model may fail to enable the people involved to accept their new roles successfully (Shepherd, Harris, Chung, & Himes, 2014).

Kotter’s 8-Step Model

Developer: John Kotter (2014).

Description of the theoretical perspectives

According to the existing description, Kotter’s 8-Step Model implies that the team members should be not only aware of the change but also accepting of it. The people working in the organization must realize that the change is needed urgently and that the suggested design will help all parties involved benefit.

  1. Stating the urgency
  2. Building the guiding team
  3. Creating a shared vision
  4. Communicating it
  5. Encouraging the participants to act based on the vision
  6. Marking short-term successes
  7. Enhancing the change
  8. Making the change permanent (George & MacDonnell, 2015).

Pros and cons concerning the organizational change

The focus on urgency and the creation of a well-coordinated team are the primary strengths of the model. It is essential to make sure that people realize the significance of the change and the direction thereof. However, the framework is mostly applicable to large corporations due to its top-down approach, since smaller firms may require a bottom-up strategy. Nevertheless, it could be argued that the framework can be adjusted to meet the needs of smaller companies as well.

Reference List

Botelho, M., Kowalski, R., & Bartlett, S. (2013). Kurt Lewin’s model of change revisited in a Brazilian higher education context. Educational Futures, 5(2), 23-43.

George, P., & MacDonnell, C. P. (2015). Designing Interprofessional Education Curriculum Using Multiple Conceptual Frameworks. Annals of Behavioral Science and Medical Education, 21(1), 9-13. DOI:10.1007/BF03355303

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Schaffer, M. A., Sandau, K. E., & Diedrick, L. (2012). Evidence-based practice models for organizational change: overview and practical applications. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(5), 1197-1209. DOI: DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2012.06122.x

Shepherd, M. L., Harris, M. L., Chung, H., & Himes, E. M. (2014). Using the Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability, Reinforcement Model to build a shared governance culture. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 4(6), 90-104. DOI:10.5430/jnep.v4n6p90

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StudyCorgi. "Theoretical Perspectives of the Change Models." December 7, 2020.


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