The paper discusses the six-step training model for global leaders used to develop their cultural intelligence. The model was presented in the article by Earley and Mosakowski (2004). The researchers state that while referring to the cultural intelligence, it is important to avoid mixing the concept with the idea of the emotional intelligence.
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Those leaders who need to work with diverse populations and in various settings can discuss the development of the cultural intelligence as a challenging task. In their article, Earley and Mosakowski (2004) propose the specific six-step model of training for persons who need to develop their competence related to cultural intelligence (CQ). In spite of the fact that individuals often do not distinguish the emotional intelligence and cultural intelligence, the difference is significant, and they need to take certain actions proposed by Earley and Mosakowski in order to develop their CQ and achieve high results.
The first step of the training program for global leaders and persons focused on improving their skills in the intercultural communication is the assessment of their strengths and weaknesses in relation to CQ. On the one hand, the step is rather easy to complete because a person usually understands what areas in his approach to intercultural interaction and leadership should be improved. On the other hand, a person who plans the work with the diverse personnel or in the new cultural setting receives the opportunity to assess the personal leadership attributes in terms of the cognitive, physical, and motivational CQ honestly and refer to the assessment of colleagues (Tuleja, 2014, p. 6).
Therefore, the first step logically leads to the choice of the training to address the identified weaknesses (Earley & Mosakowski, 2004, p. 140). When a person who prepares for the work in the Japanese company, for instance, knows his strong and weak sides, he is able to select the most promising training. For example, although the motivational CQ can be high, the knowledge and confidence regarding the physical and cognitive CQ can be rather low to guarantee the effective interaction. The third step identified by Earley and Mosakowski (2004) is very important for the leader because it is the actual training aimed at developing certain skills. During this stage, a person can improve the knowledge regarding the physical CQ and the body language in Japan, or he can develop the knowledge of the French approach to decision-making while planning the cooperation with the French specialists.
When the first steps are completed, Earley and Mosakowski (2004) propose the analysis of the resources available to the person in order to succeed in the cultural training. The analysis of resources leads to their reorganization to achieve better results while developing skills in the intercultural communication. The leader receives the opportunity to modify his approaches to daily routines and activities from the perspective of the intercultural communication and determine the specific resources that are necessary to achieve higher results, such as time, books, seminars, or contacts with trainers (Ng, Van Dyne, & Ang, 2009, p. 512).
The fifth step is important for practicing the learned skills because a person makes the first attempts to interact in the multicultural environment. In this situation, the future global leader is able to demonstrate his strengths and the acquired knowledge (Wibbeke, 2013). If a person has strong analytical skills and he is attentive to the employees’ opinions, he can focus on this aspect while interacting with representatives of different cultures for the first time. The sixth step is the evaluation of the achieved results and developed skills. It is important for a leader to refer to this step after actual contacts with foreigners because he can really assess the personal successes and determine what areas or skills should be improved. If a leader used the knowledge obtained during the training, the fist interaction with foreigners would be effective. However, the leader can ignore important strategies because of the lack of motivation, and these aspects should also be addressed during the evaluation.
Comparison of Cultural Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence
The article by Earley and Mosakowski (2004) demonstrates that CQ is the more complex concept than the emotional intelligence. If the emotional intelligence focuses only on the idea of sympathy, positive perceptions, the absence of bias, and reflection, CQ involves the analysis of the personal and group features, the focus on similarities and differences in cultures, and the prediction of the persons’ culturally dependent behaviors (Barhem, Younies, & Smith, 2011). Therefore, leaders working in different environments should develop their CQ intentionally, in order to become able to interpret the multicultural messages, react to them effectively, and organize the work of the diverse team according to the individuals’ needs and expectations (Elenkov & Manev, 2009). When a leader demonstrates only emotional intelligence, he is unable to analyze the situation and make appropriate decisions to contribute to the effective cooperation and problem solving in the organization.
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The cultural intelligence is multidimensional in its nature, and an effective global leader should constantly develop associated skills and avoid referring to the emotional intelligence as an alternative way to cooperate in diverse environments. Such researchers as Earley and Mosakowski propose six steps of training for leaders in their work. Having analyzed the steps, it is possible to note that they are appropriate to help leaders adapt to the new situation and use their strong sides to cope with the challenge of working in the multicultural setting.
Barhem, B., Younies, H., & Smith, P. C. (2011). Ranking the future global manager characteristics and knowledge requirements according to UAE business managers’ opinions. Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, 4(3), 229-247.
Earley, P., & Mosakowski, E. (2004). Cultural intelligence. Harvard Business Review, 82(10), 139–146.
Elenkov, D. S., & Manev, I. M. (2009). Senior expatriate leadership’s effects on innovation and the role of cultural intelligence. Journal of World Business, 44(4), 357-369.
Ng, K. Y., Van Dyne, L., & Ang, S. (2009). From experience to experiential learning: Cultural intelligence as a learning capability for global leader development. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 8(4), 511-526.
Tuleja, E. A. (2014). Developing cultural intelligence for global leadership through mindfulness. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 25(1), 5-24.
Wibbeke, E. (2013). Global business leadership. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.