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Addiction and 12-Step Programs

Haroutunian, H. (2016). Not as prescribed: Recognizing and facing alcohol and drug misuse in older adults. Simon and Schuster.

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The book in question dwells upon substance misuse in older adults and ways to address this problem. Chapter 2 provides valuable insights into the peculiarities of this population’s addiction development with the focus on age and family. The author describes some of the most common reasons for and mechanisms of the development of addictions in the target population. Haroutunian (2016) also sheds light on several important training techniques that can be instrumental in implementing effective 12-Step programs. One of the central points to consider is methods to avoid ageism. Haroutunian (2016) emphasizes that people trying to help a person with addiction (including family members, counselors, and other mental health practitioners) are prone to this issue. When choosing methods to help their loved ones, these individuals ground their effort on their assumptions and knowledge about aging, which can be harmful (Haroutunian, 2016). First, it is essential to learn more about aging, and it is critical to consider all possible causes of addiction and diverse aspects to build on when developing coping strategies.

This source is valuable for the present project as I will improve my knowledge about the peculiarities of aging and the development of addiction in older adults. I will also be cautious to avoid ageism that can lead to negative consequences. When working with the client, I will also pass this knowledge to the woman who might have a limited understanding of the processes that are taking place. This awareness of potential causes of the problem and healthy ways to age can help the client overcome her addiction. The book also provides insights into spirituality at different ages that can also be a topic of discussion.

Kelly, J. (2016). Is Alcoholics Anonymous religious, spiritual, neither? Findings from 25 years of mechanisms of behavior change research. Addiction, 112(6), 929-936. Web.

The article under consideration is concerned with the spiritual nature of Alcoholics Anonymous programs and their effectiveness in different populations. Kelly (2016) highlights the differences related to age, gender, and cultural backgrounds. The author notes that females tend to respond differently to the program than men. Age differences should also be considered when implementing 12-Step programs. The researcher also stresses that the spiritual elements of the program should not be confined to religious themes and topics. With less religious people, it is essential to concentrate on such areas as the good and the bad, love, compassion, forgiveness, and others. At the same time, Kelly (2016) also states that Alcoholics Anonymous should be conducted in the communities where people live in order to maximize positive outcomes. Relapse in women is more common as compared with men, especially when treatment is short. These projects should also be continuous, as participants benefit from the involvement in lasting programs.

One of the valuable insights gained from the source is associated with the essence of spirituality. Prior to discussing spiritual aspects, it is important to discuss the exact meanings behind the concept, as seen by the client. I will discuss my client’s religious beliefs to make sure the program will be successful. If the woman is religious, I will definitely try to refer to sacred texts and exact passages. I will also initiate discussions of broad concepts, but if the level of religiosity is rather low, I will focus on these elements exclusively. Kelly (2016) also mentions the healing effect of music (both religious and non-religious). I will also employ music and the discussion of its impact on the program.

Matsuzaka, S. (2018). Alcoholics Anonymous is a fellowship of people: A qualitative study. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 36(2), 152-178. Web.

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The present article is a valuable source for the current project as it provides insights into the challenges females abusing alcohol encounter and ways to address them. For example, Matsuzaka (2018) states that alcohol addicts have to face discrimination and stigma related to gender, ethnicity, class, age, and other factors. Although the author concentrates on LGBT participants and their experiences, the utilized methods are also effective in other groups. Stigma and discrimination have diverse negative effects on the outcomes of 12-Step programs, therefore, specific attention should be paid to these areas. Matsuzaka (2018) adds that the cultural peculiarities of clients should be considered. The researcher also adds that the involvement of a larger community is beneficial for abusers. Clients should be encouraged to increase their participation in social life, starting with deeper participation in their family-based activities.

An important argument made by the author is the need to pay specific attention to the transition to sobriety. I will support the client in her transition to sobriety that will be implemented through the focus on a set of goals. These goals will be mainly related to the family and specific real-life aspects rather than spirituality. I will also consider the cultural background of my client, which will be instrumental in exploring her spirituality and helping the women in her struggle with her addiction. I will try to make my clients more engaged in the life of the community. We will discuss various events that take place and ways to become a part of the discussed activities. Active participation can be one of the measurements of the effectiveness of the program.

Ranes, B., Johnson, R., Nelson, L., & Slaymaker, V. (2016). The role of spirituality in treatment outcomes following a residential 12-Step program. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 35(1), 16-33. Web.

This source deals with the evaluation of the effectiveness of a 12-step program and its impact on participants’ abstinence after the completion of the project. Ranes et al. (2016) claim that spirituality is an important component of any 12-Step incentive. Importantly, the researchers note that community-based treatment is the most efficient. One of the most valuable insights the researchers provide is linked to the peculiarity of spirituality. Ranes et al. (2016) argue that spirituality is not static as it is undergoing constant changes. The authors agree with other researchers regarding the religious aspect that is not seen as central to people’s spirituality. Such basic principles as gratitude, forgiveness, love, compassion, and others can be discussed. Ranes et al. (2016) state that people’s abstinence increases and remains high even after the completion of the program if proper attention is paid to spirituality. Working in groups is regarded as the preferable format, but individual counseling can also be effective.

One of the takeaways of the present source is the need to pay specific attention to gratitude and narcissism during the program. I will utilize different tools to measure the client’s narcissism and gratitude. The article includes the description and validation of the most common and effective measurements, so I will employ these tools. For instance, I will use the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale and Narcissistic Personality Inventory 16, as well as Gratitude Questionnaire-6. I will also employ methods to reduce the former and improve the latter. As has been mentioned above, spirituality is a dynamic notion, so I will trace the changes in the client’s spirituality during the program. We will pay more attention to some general topics although certain religious themes and symbols will also be discussed.

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