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Anti-Abortion Advocacy of Pro-Life Movement


The topic of abortions has been deemed controversial for many years. It is a discussion about legal, ethical, moral, and other complications. The researchers usually define two central claims that directly contradict each other. The first argument, which is discussed in this paper, supports the idea of abortions being immoral and encourages the creation of necessary legal restrictions to prohibit abortions.

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The main counterargument is backed up by people, who oppose abortion restriction and say that a pregnant woman has more rights than a fetus and, thus, has the ability to decide on its fate. These people are labeled as the pro-choice movement (Kaczor, 2014). On the other hand, the protesters of abortion, otherwise called the pro-life movement, claim that a fetus has the same set of legal and human rights as a person and that abortion is an act of killing (Kaczor, 2014). This paper analyses the claim of the pro-life group that advocates against abortion, including its legal, ethical, and moral implications as well as its rhetoric and existing research.


Interested Parties

Different groups of people support the pro-life movement. Many people that share the same beliefs as this group do so because of their religion (Allen, 2014). For instance, Christianity is one of the faiths, which firmly believes that the life of a fetus begins from the moment of its conception (Allen, 2014). This view is the basis of every pro-life argument. Furthermore, religious authorities recognize that a fetus may not possess the full range of cognitive abilities. However, they argue that “accident victims or people born with genetic abnormalities … don’t possess the full range of human functions either” (Allen, 2014, p. 176).

Other religions share this opinion as well. Moreover, a variety of political groups and healthcare organizations actively discuss this issue from different points of view. According to Sumner (2014), pro-life arguments are often labeled as a conservative view. Therefore, it is safe to assume that the conservative party often speaks in favor of restricting abortions. The politicians focus on the issues of morality and human experience. Many medical professionals discuss not only legal but also the medical implications of abortion.

Presented Information

Both parties present various data to support their opinions. On the one hand, pro-life activists base their arguments on the notion that the significance of human life is indisputable regardless of its form. They present the information from embryology and genetic science, claiming that a fetus carries some genetic information from its parents, which makes it equal to a human being with an identity and personality (Allen, 2014).

Therefore, many pro-life activists equate abortion to infanticide. On the other hand, the same moral issue is discussed by pro-choice movements from the mother’s point of view. This group argues that a fetus is not formed enough to experience emotions or pain and does not have any attributes of cognition (Sumner, 2014). Therefore, pregnant women have more rights than fetuses. These activists do not promote infanticide, restricting abortion to a process allowed before the birth of a child. Moreover, most pro-choice activists base their arguments on the aspect of body autonomy, saying that a woman has a right to decide her body’s fate.

The information about medical concerns is presented by both movements as well. While most abortion supporters focus on the health of a pregnant woman and discuss pregnancy complications that may endanger women’s lives, the advocates of the pro-life movement highlight the possible dangers of having an abortion. For example, according to Sedgh et al. (2016), many women undergo unsafe abortions, putting themselves at risk.

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The two communities also dispute the psychological and sexual issues of abortion. The pro-life movement is concerned with the outcomes of legalizing abortions, stating that the legalization will encourage people to have less responsibility and promote more corrupted sexual behavior, which in turn will negatively influence the society’s morals. Abort supporters do not agree with this claim, stating that the legalization of abortions will lead to safer medical practices and lower risk of complications (Sedgh et al., 2016).

Personal Opinion

In my opinion, the claim that abortion is immoral does not conflict with my own experience and has some reasonable arguments. First of all, the immorality of this process mainly lies in the notion of life and the moment of its creation. Secondly, the implications and consequences of abortion seem rather negative in their effect on the community. The possible ways of abortion restriction should be discussed at the legislative level.

Rhetoric and Fallacies

Abortion supporters outline a number of points that are used as a basis for their rhetoric. However, most of the arguments of the pro-choice movement rely on the issue of autonomy. The activists ask whether it is ethical for other people or organizations to impose a decision on a woman and her body. This discussion often leads to multiple fallacies, which concern political, moral, and ethical fields.

First of all, most of the claims made by pro-choice activists rely on the belief that banning abortion would contrast sharply with the idea of “American freedom.” This particular concept is presented as an intimidation tactic and is not supported by evidence. Secondly, many people state that all women agonize over the decision to have or not to have an abortion. However, that is not always true, because many women do not consider it a possibility, while other women do not feel regret after making a decision (Boyle, 2014).

Finally, the consolidation of legal and moral rights often becomes a stumbling point for both groups. According to Allen (2014), the legality of something does not equate to it being morally sound. Thus, some legal rights that were at some point perceived to be immoral could be changed to represent society’s views (Allen, 2014). In this case, society’s view of abortion and its moral grounds may influence the legal situation in the country.


Presented Research

Scientists from various spheres explore the concept of abortion from different angles. The field of genetics and embryology is often referenced in the works of pro-life activists, as it discusses the fetus and its properties. For example, according to Allen (2014), many Catholic leaders base their arguments against abortion of the fact that the fetus possesses a “distinct genetic pattern” from the moment of its conception (p. 176).

According to the author, this concept is rooted in Aristotelian biology and is supported by modern science (Allen, 2014). Moreover, abortion protesters claim that there is no significant difference between the fetus and a newborn child. This claim suggests that human beings are persons from the moment of sperm and eggshell confluence. Thus, the notion of personhood allows some researchers to connect abortion and murder and strengthens the argument against abortion (Kaczor, 2014). Psychologists, for example, investigate the morality of this issue and its relation to the minds of the society as well as separate individuals. Some findings indicate the negative shift in people’s psychological perception of children and parenthood (Sumner, 2014).

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Assessing Probabilities

There are many ways to determine the probabilities of the claim that abortion is immoral. However, it is possible to outline the three most successful ways: statistical analysis, public discussion, and individual interviewing. First of all, various statistical analyses can supply the researcher with the necessary data and help process large quantities of information. For example, the data that shows the societal opinion on the topic of abortion is abundant.

However, it can be systemized to show the patterns and prevailing views on the subject. Secondly, holding public discussions is an excellent way to present the information on both sides of the argument with an ability to explore the topic and come to some conclusions. Open discussions allow the audience to form an opinion on the basis of the most recent findings and give the participants an ability to suggest some possible solutions and future arguments. Finally, personal interviews can help assess the situation on an individual basis, allowing the researchers to gather a range of unique experiences. For example, a study by McIntyre, Anderson, and McDonald (2016) explored the relational and cultural narratives of women after abortion and investigated some personal reasons and conclusions.


Abortion is a topic that can be discussed from different points of view. Various political and religious leaders, as well as scholars, health professionals, and other individuals, have presented many arguments for and against the process of abortion. Many of these people support the idea of restricting abortion on the legislative level and encourage the discussion towards abortion prohibition. The main ideas that are offered as the basis for this position include the notion of personhood, the value of human life, and health complications connected to abortions. A strong religious platform allows the pro-life movement to advocate against abortion.


Allen, J. L. (2014). The Catholic Church: What everyone needs to know? Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Boyle, M. (2014). Re-thinking abortion: Psychology, gender and the law. New York, NY: Routledge.

Kaczor, C. (2014). The ethics of abortion: Women’s rights, human life, and the question of justice (2nd ed.) New York, NY: Routledge.

McIntyre, M., Anderson, B., & McDonald, C. (2016). The intersection of relational and cultural narratives: Women’s abortion experiences. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research Archive, 33(3), 47-62.

Sedgh, G., Bearak, J., Singh, S., Bankole, A., Popinchalk, A., Ganatra, B.,… & Johnston, H. B. (2016). Abortion incidence between 1990 and 2014: Global, regional, and subregional levels and trends. The Lancet, 388(10041), 258-267.

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Sumner, L. W. (2014). Abortion and moral theory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

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