Breast Cancer Studies


Despite significant progress in the development of new technologies, cancer remains one of the problems of modern medicine. Today, society increasingly draws attention to women’s breast cancer since this issue does not lose its relevance. Numerous developments of experienced doctors cannot help to get rid of this problem entirely. Nevertheless, many researchers regularly conduct studies to identify different points: the most vulnerable categories of women, the dynamics of the disease, etc. Therefore, according to several studies, it is possible to try to assess the level of their effectiveness and reliability of data, as well as offer a separate intervention that can help at least partially solve the problem of breast cancer.

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General Information about the Used Sources

Four scientific works were taken as a basis for the study. The first of them is called “Interventions to Increase the Uptake of Mammography amongst Low Income Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis” (Gardner, Adams, & Jeffreys, 2013). A second one is “Assessment of the Effects of Decision Aids about Breast Cancer Screening: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis” (Martínez-Alonso et al., 2017). Nelson et al. (2016) are the authors of a third paper called “Effectiveness of Breast Cancer Screening: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis to Update the 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation.” Another work is written by Walter and Schonberg (2014) and called “Screening Mammography in Older Women: A Review.” All these four studies have become the basis of the authors obtained results’ general analysis, as well as the evaluation of their evidence.

Level of Evidence

All the authors provide quite reliable and relevant information on the problem of breast cancer. The articles use statistical data to show the dynamics of the disease and the most vulnerable women categories. The principal focus is on age groups. Gardner et al. (2016), in their meta-analysis, display the table with all the sources that they used in the process of work and also give the primary conclusions based on the materials studied. Martínez-Alonso et al. (2017), in their research, also demonstrate a similar table and provide a diagram of how they selected sources. All four articles have rather precise theses and provide detailed descriptions of the stated problems.

Significance and Relevance of the Used Evidence

According to the research results, it is worth noting that the information and evidence obtained are of some importance for the field of nursing. Patients with breast cancer are treated in clinics, where the nursing staff provides them with proper care and assistance. If nurses are guided by which age groups of women are at the highest risk of this disease, they will be able to draw up an approximate plan for optimal care and use it for specific cases. Moreover, the results of the studies can give an opportunity to obtain relatively accurate information about the dynamics of the ailment. For example, Gardner et al. (2014), in their article, provide some calculations of possible risks, and Nelson et al. (2016) show the mortality rate caused by breast cancer. When using these data, it is possible to improve personal and professional knowledge and make the practice of nursing more advanced. Women who are forced to undergo treatment and chemotherapy can expect more attentive and quality care if clinic employees are aware of the consequences and dynamics of the disease.

Intervention Description

As a possible intervention that can be applied, preventive measures can be used by educating the population and promoting the problem of breast cancer. For example, Walter and Schonberg (2014) conduct the research of screening mammography in older women. It is possible to organize individual training courses for those who are most at risk of this disease and have a hereditary predisposition.

Also, for women who are afraid of this ailment, it is possible to develop specific, methodical manuals that will show the primary preventive measures against breast cancer and all the information they need to know. For example, it can be the frequency of visits to a mammologist and an independent check for the appearance of malignant tumors and neoplasms in the breast. If women have all the information about this ailment, it is possible that many of them will be able to diagnose the disease in time and successfully cure it. As it is known, treating cancer in later stages is very problematic, and sometimes it can not be done; therefore, necessary preventive measures is one of the conditions of protection.


Thus, the evaluation and analysis of the four scientific papers allow concluding that they are of considerable significance in the matter of breast cancer and can be used as auxiliary resources in nursing practice. The quality of the evidence and relevance of the data presented in them helps to identify several aspects of the problem: the dynamics of the disease, the age-risk groups, the mortality rate, etc. As an intervention, educational prevention courses can be conducted, as well as disseminating information to the public to draw attention to the issue.

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Gardner, M. P., Adams, A., & Jeffreys, M. (2013). Interventions to increase the uptake of mammography amongst low income women: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS One, 8(2), 1-13.

Martínez-Alonso, M., Carles-Lavila, M., Pérez-Lacasta, M. J., Pons-Rodríguez, A., Garcia, M., & Rué, M. (2017). Assessment of the effects of decision aids about breast cancer screening: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open, 7(10), 1-11.

Nelson, H. D., Fu, R., Cantor, A., Pappas, M., Daeges, M., & Humphrey, L. (2016). Effectiveness of breast cancer screening: Systematic review and meta-analysis to update the 2009 US preventive services task force recommendation. Annals of Internal Medicine, 164(4), 244-255.

Walter, L. C., & Schonberg, M. A. (2014). Screening mammography in older women: A review. Jama, 311(13), 1336-1347.

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"Breast Cancer Studies." StudyCorgi, 16 Jan. 2021,

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StudyCorgi. "Breast Cancer Studies." January 16, 2021.


StudyCorgi. 2021. "Breast Cancer Studies." January 16, 2021.


StudyCorgi. (2021) 'Breast Cancer Studies'. 16 January.

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