The human body is a complex self-regulated system where all components are interconnected. Calcium and phosphate are important elements necessary for the proper functioning of the organism (Nussey & Whitehead, 2013). Such hormones as parathyroid, calcitonin, and calcitriol regulate the amount of phosphate and calcium. Imbalances result in the development of such serious health conditions as hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia (Bhimma & Mandal, 2014). This paper includes a brief description of the regulation process of phosphate and calcium, as well as clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatments for the disorders mentioned above.
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It is necessary to be aware of the mechanism of these elements regulation to understand the ways it affects people’s health. These materials are critical for the formation of bones, and they are also found in cell membranes. Calcitriol, a hormone produced in kidneys, produces vitamin D when its level is low (Nussey & Whitehead, 2013). Calcium uptake from food increases and this element is released from bones. Calcitriol also regulates the level of phosphate by increasing the uptake of this element in the intestine when there is a deficiency. When the level of phosphate is high, calcitriol causes its increased excretion. Parathyroid, a hormone produced in glands, causes the release of calcium from bones and increases its absorption in the intestine. Calcitonin has an opposite function and lowers down the level of calcium.
Hypercalcemia is a condition when the level of calcium in the blood is higher than 2.6 mmol/L (Bhimma & Mandal, 2014). The symptoms of this disorder include bone and abdominal pain, kidney stones, weakness, and even cardiac arrest. The evaluation of the disorder involves the examination, the discussion of the symptoms if any, and blood tests to estimate the level of calcium in the blood. Treatment consists of hydration, increased salt intake, as well as the prescription of bisphosphonates or other types of medication (Bhimma & Mandal, 2014). The dosage and the type of drugs to be prescribed depending on the severity of the disease. Proper diet and certain lifestyle changes can be recommended as well.
Hypocalcemia, on the contrary, is a health condition characterized by a low level of calcium in the blood (less than 2.1 mmol/l) (Bhimma & Mandal, 2014). The clinical manifestation of hypocalcemia can be muscle spasms, numbness, and cardiac arrest. The evaluation of this disorder is similar to the one described above. The patient is examined and interviewed to identify the presence of certain symptoms. Blood tests are also taken to estimate the level of calcium and the severity of the condition. The patient is prescribed such medication as calcium gluconate and vitamin D supplementation (Bhimma & Mandal, 2014). It is also recommended to have a healthy diet and a sufficient amount of physical training to address the health issue in question.
In conclusion, it is necessary to note that calcium and phosphate are important elements that can affect the functioning of human bodies. These components are regulated by similar hormones, and disbalances can lead to serious health issues including hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia. Certain blood test results and patient examination are major tools to evaluate these diseases. The use of medication is central to treating both disorders. Finally, a healthy diet and lifestyle are instrumental in maintaining proper levels of calcium. Patients can also benefit from training aimed at helping them cope with their health status and improving the quality of their lives.
Bhimma, R., & Mandal, A. K. (2014). Calcium and phosphorous metabolism associated with clinical disorders in pediatric and adult population. In A. K. Mandal (Ed.), Textbook of nephrology (pp. 94-112). Philadelphia, PA: JP Medical Ltd.
Nussey, S. S., & Whitehead, S. A. (2013). Endocrinology: An integrated approach. Oxford, England: CRC Press.
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