Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is a term in the medical field that refers to the emergency process involving a combination of chest comprehensions using artificial ventilation. The purpose of CPR is to preserve intact brain operation manually before other steps are taken to restore the normal breathing and circulation of blood when a person is under cardiac arrest (Zhang 6). An automated External Defibrillator (AED) is a device that is used to aid those who experience random or sudden cardiac arrest. It is comprehensive and sophisticated equipment to utilize, and it involves analysis of the condition before moving to the next step (Karlsson et al. 14). This essay explores the steps that are undertaken in CPR and how to use AED. Additionally, the paper will cover when AED is needed and how can healthcare facility obtain basic life support certification.
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Steps of CPR
Calling Emergency Response Numbers
When someone realizes that there is a case of a patient who has been hit by cardiac arrest, they should check whether there are any issues that may put them in danger. The factors that commonly apply in this case may be a risk of fire, traffic, or falling objects if the incident is near a construction site (Cho and Kim 34). The next step is checking whether the person needs help by tapping their shoulder and asking them if they are okay. If they respond, then one can interrogate the extent of the matter. If the person does not respond, it requires a quick call to emergency response groups (Zhang 8). Alternatively, one may request a bystander to make a call as they hold the patient who needs help.
Place the Needy Person on Their Back
Here, the person attending to the victim places them carefully on their back, and then they kneel beside their chest. After that, it is advised that one tilts their head and slightly lifts the chin (Cho and Kim 35). The first aider here opens the mouth of the person and checks for any obstruction such as vomit. If there is any, they should remove it only if it is loose to enable the person to get relief.
Check if the Person Is Breathing
One may place their ear near the person’s mouth for around ten seconds to ascertain the normal breathing rate. When the person realizes that the victim is not breathing normally, they can now perform the breathing aids. It is recommended that if the affected person is unconscious, one should not perform any procedures (Cho and Kim 35). Meanwhile, one should monitor any form of physical deterioration in terms of pain and other problems.
Perform Chest Compressions
This is the most important step where the person assisting places one of their hands on top of the other and clasps them simultaneously. After the hands have taken the positions, one should push hard and quickly in the chest’s central level slightly below the nipples. The normal push should be at least two inches deep, and compression should be about 100 times in a minute (Cho and Kim 36). However, one should be careful about the energy applied in compressing specific groups.
Perform Rescue Breaths
After ensuring the victim’s mouth is clear from obstruction, one should shut their nose by slightly pinching the nose opening and then blowing mouth over theirs to make their chest rise up and down. It is also important to tilt the head if there is a challenge in the chest rising (Zhang 6). The person performing CPR should be careful at this stage not to choke the victim. That can be achieved by close monitoring of their airways and chest rising (Zhang 6). The person doing the CPR must repeat the above steps as they wait for the emergency response groups to arrive.
How to Use An AED
When AED is available, the person offering the aid should continue compressing the chest and rescue breaths as the other person turns on the machine and attaches the necessary components. After the AED has been turned and attached as required, the personnel operating it should check if it says ‘shock advised’ so that they press the charging knob (Karlsson et al. 16). While doing this, it must stand near the patient as the shock key is lighting up. The equipment will determine whether the victim should be subjected to shock from the quick analysis it performs during the procedure.
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After the above steps have been undertaken, the person attending to the patient should resume CPR. At this point, it is advised that minimal interruptions occur from rescue breaths and compressions (Karlsson et al. 20). Additionally, when undertaking the compressions, the person should lift completely of the chest so that compressions can allow recoiling of the chest. However, the procedure does not apply to all groups of people as it will depend on age among other demographics (Karlsson et al. 21). Therefore, the case needs critical and proper decision-making to avoid any individual or group’s liability.
When AED is Needed
AED is needed when there is an emergency response towards bracing someone hit by cardiac arrest. That means any time disruption of the heart’s normal functioning by having a dangerously fast heartbeat. Under conditions when a heartbeat shows irregular, fast heartbeat, AED can be required as soon as possible to save the life of the affected person (Karlsson et al. 10). However, when using AED, it is always recommended to check the instructions to avoid the device’s maloperations.
How to Obtain Basic Life Support Certification
Basic Life Support (BSL) certification can be offered to any person or group as long as they meet critical care requirements. BLS can be certified for healthcare workers, police officers, firefighters, and other essential service providers. A person or group needs to attend basic training on improving patient outcomes (Ghauri et al. 2). For example, Red Cross BSL certification has courses reviewed by the American Red Cross Scientific Advisory Council (ARCSAC) for emergency response practice, such as first aid. When a person gets the training by ARCSAC, they gain skills and get certification by the panel hence can produce it to employers and other agencies.
People who are regularly affected by cardiac arrest require the performance of CPR and utilization of AED effectively. The critical part of the condition is that it can result in the victim’s death if not attended to shortly. Medical practitioners, disciplined forces, firefighters, and the general public should have training on how to respond to emergency cardiac arrest so that people succumbing to the conditions are minimal. It is recommended that the specific steps for undertaking CPR and using AED should be followed for effective results. If a person needs to have a basic life support certificate, they can get training from global organizations and government agencies. When BSL skills are acquired, society can be in a safer place on issues regarding fatalities from cardiac arrests.
Cho, Byung-Jun, and Seon-Rye Kim. “Comparison of Long-Term Effects Between Chest Compression-Only CPR Training and Conventional CPR Training on CPR Skills Among Police Officers.” Healthcare, vol. 9, no. 1, 2021, pp. 34-36.
Ghauri, Sanniya, et al. “Impact of Basic Life Support Training on the Knowledge of Basic Life Support in Undergraduate Medical Students.” South Asian Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 2, no. 1, 2019, pp. 1-4.
Karlsson, Lena, et al. “Data Concerning AED Registration in The Danish AED Network, And Cardiac Arrest-Related Characteristics of Ohcas, Including AED Coverage and AED Accessibility.” Data in Brief, vol. 24, no. 10, 2019, pp. 10-26.
Zhang, Sisen. “Clinical Analysis of Petco2 In Predicting Abdominal Lifting and Compression CPR”. Journal of Complementary Medicine & Alternative Healthcare, vol. 3, no. 3, 2017, pp. 6-8.