Leviathan is one of the most influential works created by Thomas Hobbes in the middle of the 17th century. Covering a number of human and natural rights, the author evaluated the role of power and needs regarding absolutism and contractarianism. The goal of this paper is to analyze Chapter XIII and Chapter XIV from the book Leviathan by Hobbes and investigate human relations and such concepts as war, peace, and contract.
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Despite the fact that some physiological differences cannot be ignored, there is also a chance for a weak man to kill a strong man. According to Hobbes, all humans are naturally free in their bodies and minds. Still, there are situations when quarrels cannot be avoided, and competition, diffidence, and glory are the main causes. These principles guide people and make them set and achieve goals.
Another interesting aspect of this chapter is the importance of a master or just some power to control human actions. Hobbes recommended time as a standard that defines a war’s duration, the urgency of peace, the effectiveness of a current leader, or the accuracy of knowledge. At the end of the chapter, the author explained that people need law according to which it is possible to define justice, force, order, and beliefs and promote human freedoms.
The second chapter is about the two natural laws and contracts that people create. Every man or woman behaves according to their personal reasons. To make sure that these reasons do not harm the lives of other people, natural rules were created. One of the laws stated that a person should strive for peace and follow it, and another law explained human actions as a part of the universe where each other’s liberties and safety are respected. To live in a free and equal world, society should cooperate, and the creation of special bonds is a solution. Hobbes introduced contracts as a means to regulate relationships, transferring rights, and recognize demands.
The complex nature of human relationships is a frequent topic for discussion in many philosophical works. Hobbes’ contributions play an important role in modern life, and his absolutism helps define the shortages of the existing governing system, evaluate current human needs, and realize if there is any other appropriate solution. Although reading Hobbes’ Leviathan is not easy due to the number of complex sentences and language, it is always educative to use his ideas. The author promoted the necessity for people to be free and appreciate everyone’s freedoms to create a perfect society. At the same time, Hobbes did not ignore the thought that any community needs a leader or some power to control. In some parts of this work, it seems that one sentence contradicts another sentence that was mentioned before. There are many approaches to describe and analyze human life, and Hobbes made an attempt to cover several controversial issues, supporting liberty and law in two chapters.
I agree with the fact that people have to create and follow orders regardless of their statuses, locations, and other distinctive features. A perfect society may be created when one particular legal power is spread around the globe. However, such a condition is a type of utopia, and utopia is something I can never accept. Therefore, in my opinion, Hobbes’ position of absolutism is not appropriate today. The creation of such a society is a task with no right or wrong actions. It is an iceberg with its beauty and attractiveness above the water and many dangerous (sometimes deadly) and unpredictable outcomes.
Not every reader is able to understand the messages sent by Hobbes from the 17th century. Sometimes, his reading confuses, and in some cases, it serves as an effective motivation. Leviathan is a complex but necessary text for students as it proves that even the most talented people are challenged by giving correct answers. No one says that life is simple with a number of free choices and options, and Leviathan is one of the best pieces of evidence for this truth.
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