Slave Morality and Master Morality: An Argumentative Essay

Friedrich Nietzsche’s (1844-1900) works had a tremendous impact on the development of the entire philosophical current of the XX century. Nietzsche was a harsh critic of religion; in particular, he viewed Christianity as a disease of the entire Western civilization. In his opinion, Christian moral in its exaltation of eternal...

Aspects of Critical Thinking

Critical thinking is one of the fundamental concepts of philosophy. Used to describe the process of objectively identifying and analyzing events to meet one’s goals in the most efficient way possible. The ability is developed through training and learning different things, as well as being conscious of one’s thought process....

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Defeating Aging and Life Extension

Aging is a significant part of all human beings reflecting the organic changes that occur, but also sparkling cultural and communal conventions. Aging is a multidimensional process of physical, psychological and social changes that occur in all human beings. Aging has made a significant impact on the community or society....

The Difference Principle by John Rawls

John Rawls was an American philosopher in the field of politics in the 20th century, who adhered to the liberal tradition. During his activity, he introduced several theories, such as justice as fairness and political liberalism. The first mentioned one involves the difference principle, which presents an alternative distributive principle....

Existence of God in Times of Covid-19 Pandemic

Introduction Different philosophers and religious analysts have approached the existence of God from diverse perspectives. Some remain skeptical while others have succeeded in providing strong arguments to describe the nature of God and the universe. Some of these great thinkers include Aquinas, Kant, and Reiner. Using the views of these...

The Need for Personal Life Philosophy

Personal Purpose As humans, everyone needs personal philosophy; otherwise, there will be a risk of wandering in information and making random stimuli, with no impact on individual’s long-term goals. Personal life philosophy offers the overall attitude and vision towards both life and its purpose; therefore, without the essence of philosophy,...

Plato’s and Aristotle’s Approaches to Metaphysics Comparison

Plato’s and Plato’s and Aristotle’s attitudes to the nature of reality are regarded as the opposite ones. According to Plato, the knowledge of life is based on learning the common inextricable idea that exists separately from the material world. Aristotle, a disciple of Plato, understands the vision and the material...

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Why Practicing Utilitarianism is Important

Philosophy is an integral part of every person’s worldview and outlook on life which they espouse and through which they interpret various phenomena. Ethics is inherent to any philosophical perspective since it constitutes an element which guides people in their actions and interactions with others. Utilitarianism and deontology are two...

Kant’s Imperative Overview and Analysis

The phenomenon of the imperative is a rather well-known philosophical subject. Having been coined by Immanuel Kant, the idea of an imperative as the concept that defines one’s decision-making has been accepted and used widely in philosophy, specifically, in Kantianism (Longuenesse, 2020). Although the two imperatives, namely, the categorical and...

The Meaning of Khaldun’s Words on Man’s Weakness

By stating that man is weak and deficient, Khaldun establishes the limits of his own knowledge and, consequently, of the book. He contrasts his awareness with the God’s, claiming the superiority of the latter. The author restricts his explorations to the Maghrib region specifically because of his inability to portray...

Philosophy: Political Advertisements

Introduction Philosophy is usually understood in various diverse ways by people or philosophers of different backgrounds. However, these different philosophers aim at achieving some understanding, awareness and gaining some intelligence, to think, support and argue rationally on various essential matters. Moore & Bruder, 2005 philosophically offered a succinct definition of...

Hume, Locke, and Descartes: Philosophical Theories

The historical development of philosophical thought was accompanied by emerging controversies regarding the uncertain role of people’s perceptions in the process of the formation of the concept of self. This situation was connected to the conflicting theories aimed at explaining personal identity either through impressions one receives from the world...

Allegory of the Cave: Credibility of Information Sources in Acquiring the Right Knowledge

Introduction Acquiring knowledge is actual progress to people as it assures sustained better lifestyles. Plato describes the experience in his Allegory of the Cave as he communicates a message to Glaucon (Peterson 275). His perspective on knowledge entails understanding the worth of doing good. Plato makes a vital comparison with...

Marxist Criminological Paradigm

Marxists’ attitude towards the concept of criminal punishment cannot be discussed outside of how Marxist paradigm theorizes crime. In its turn, this theorization reflects the conventions of the Marxist theory of a class struggle. According to Marxists, the pace of a historical progress is being defined by an ongoing process...

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Understanding of Kant’s Sublime Experience by Merritt

Melissa McBay Merritt is a philosopher whose works mainly concern Kant’s philosophy, history of ethics, and modern impact on society. She examines how moral rationalism can be implemented in contemporary ethics and what effect Kant’s legacy caused in the structure of today’s morality and the human mind. This essay considers...

Plato’s “The Allegory of the Cave”: What Does It Symbolize?

“The Allegory of the Cave” describes a human community, forced to live in a dark cave. Shackles limit the prisoners’ movements so that they can see only the things in front of them. Their perception of the world is limited to the shadows they can see on the walls and...

Definitions of a Philosophe: Kant, Diderot, Dumarsais, and Jacob

The definitions of a philosophe, which are found among classic thinkers, differed depending on the beliefs they held and the interests they followed in their professional activities. As examples, the ideas of Kant, Diderot, Dumarsais, and Jacob will be examined from the perspective of what a philosophe is and what...

Donald Davidson: Philosophy of Mind

Introduction Many philosophers have investigated the relationship between the mind and the brain. These investigations date back to the days of Plato, Aristotle, and a few other philosophers. Historically, before the scientific understanding of the mind and the brain, theology informed the understanding of the relationship between the mind and...

Philosophy of Science: Economics as a Philosophical Concern

In recent decades, the debates on the meaning and content of experimental analysis have been extensively discussed in philosophy. The discussions of the implications overlapped physical examination to social sciences such as economics. This study’s fundamental position involves the factors considered scientific, their theories’ viability, and their relationship to the...

William James – the American Philosopher

The Nursing Profession during William James Era William James was an American philosopher and a psychologist. He was considered the founder of the pragmatism school of thought and functional psychology. He was born in a wealthy family in January 1842. William James made a massive contribution to the field of...

The Means Defeat the Goals

Introduction The dilemma of using any means necessary for achieving noble goals has always been prevalent in philosophical and political discussions. Every country has examples of engaging in authoritarian measures to accomplish a higher objective, yet the implications are best illustrated by biographies of people who had to choose what...

Disproportional and Unequal Possession of the Earth

Introduction John Locke’s political philosophies have influenced a number of theories globally and have inspired many philosophers. His work was based mainly on the hypothesis of the social contract. He strongly suggested and believed that human nature was structured in a manner that allowed people to be selfish. This, according...

Power of Ideas: Philosophical Theories

Rene Descartes’ argument Rene Descartes proposed a novel way of acquiring knowledge through the use of his “doubting methodology” (Moore & Bruder, 2008). He said that skepticism enabled him to know the truth. The doubting methodology was comprised of the dream conjecture and the evil demon conjecture. It is possible...

Lynch’s “Eraserhead” and Kafka’s “Metamorphosis”: Isolation and Enlightenment

Lynch and Kafka both portray isolation and desperate loneliness in their works. While often interpreted negatively in other works, separation serves as a gateway to a better knowledge of oneself in Eraserhead and Metamorphosis alike. Due to being lonely and separated from others, the protagonists of both stories can better...

Philosophical Views on Death

Introduction Human beings have always appreciated the importance of applying philosophical concepts to questions that are ethical and metaphysical in nature. This paper seeks to explain why death is bad for the dead person because he or she will be unable to experience the good things associated with life or...

The Ethics of Simple Life

The documentary by Happen Films (2016) tells a story about a group of people who experimented in their way of life and decided to live a year in a rural community trying to use only natural or recycled materials and products. The film demonstrates how people can respond to global...

Assisted Euthanasia: Philosophical Perspectives

Introduction The ethics of human relationships is the object of many philosophical teachings and doctrines. At the same time, specific issues and topics are controversial and acute since they are difficult to discuss within the framework of one particular theory due to distinctive views on causes and effects. As such...

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Life as a Struggle for Freedom

Freedom is one of the phenomena that permeate all spheres of human activity. Many philosophers, writers, and scientists thought about it, trying to understand its essence and necessity for humanity. In my opinion, freedom seems to be something attractive and essential for a happy life. Unfortunately, many people feel unfree...

The Cristian Perspective and the Scientism in Healthcare

The Cristian Perspective Despite the advent of science, religion and the Christian faith still play a prominent role in the field of healthcare. In the medical industry, care professionals are responsible not only for ensuring the physical but mental well-being of their patients as well. Christian principles can provide the...

Marxian Alienation in Modern Capitalist Countries

The ideas of Karl Marx have a notable influence on everyday reality, both through past events and modern communist and socialist movements. However, the historical materialism of Marx is a product of nineteenth-century society; hence, the question of practical relevance is worth asking. This paper aims at answering a more...

Classical Philosophical Puzzle by George Berkeley

Introduction “If a tree falls in the forest and there is no one around to hear it, does it make a sound?” is a classical philosophical puzzle. It is sometimes attributed to George Berkeley; however, the philosopher did not discuss the question directly (Campbell, 2014). The puzzle concerns the nature...

The Atomistic Self

Various influential philosophers have considered the idea that the self as continuously independent of other individuals, making it fully autonomous. Mason Cooley poetically presented this argument by stating, “The true self is the part of us that does not change when circumstances do” (Velasquez 99). Conventionally, this belief was widely...

Apologies from Socrates: Analysis

In Apology 28b-30c, Socrates admits that he is not ashamed of pursuing a life that has not put him at risk of early death. The philosopher’s convictions hinge on the rational premise that it is worse to “live as a bad man” and not consider justice when taking action (28b)....

People’s Attitude Towards Death

Nowadays, death is an integral part of the life cycle of any person, which will meet everyone in one day. However, there are different times, various circumstances and reasons for death, so most people are afraid of this day in their lives and their friend and families. This fear is...

Your Past Does Not Define You

Every human being has his or her past. For someone, the past comprises of unfortunate events, such as sexual violence, accidents, and the fear of domestic abuse. Some other people’s past consists of pleasant moments. Most of the past, however, contains a combination of good and bad memories. People should...

Bertrand Russell’s Knowledge by Acquaintance vs. Description

The general philosophical basis of Russell’s theory of knowledge was made up of the ideas to which he came rejecting the speculative philosophy of German idealism. Russell himself characterized his position as scientific common sense (Russel 1997). This sense does not contrast science and ordinary knowledge, as well as knowledge...

Plato’s and Aristotle’s Argument on Forms and Universals

Introduction Plato’s and Aristotle’s arguments have played an essential role in philosophy and metaphysics. Both philosophers’ arguments have played an immense role in giving definition and meaning to the existing reality. In addition, their rebuttal to each others’ opinions and theory has brought livelier and reality to the metaphysical explanation...

Utilitarianism and Protection of People’s Rights

Among criticisms targeted at the ethical theory of utilitarianism is one that states that it fails to protect people’s rights and freedoms. The critics’ argument is based on the main principles of utilitarianism formulated back in the eighteenth century, their interpretation, and their applicability in the modern world. The purpose...

Research Terminology: Definitions and Distinctions

Abstract This essay gives detailed definitions of the terms paradigm, ontology, epistemology, and philosophy of science. The paper goes further to highlight the distinctions between (and among) these four terms. Researchers should be aware of these four fundamental terms. This discussion explains why such researchers should have a clear understanding...

Nietzsche’s Ideas: God and True Virtue

Introduction Friedrich Nietzsche, the outstanding German philosopher of the 19th century, left behind a rich academic heritage and became one of the founders of irrationalism as a philosophical doctrine. One of his well-known works is Thus Spake Zarathustra, the story about a wandering preacher who promotes the doctrine of the...

Plato and Aristotle Views on the Concept of Knowledge

Introduction The concept of knowledge has been debated since the conception of philosophy as a method of examining the nature of phenomena and relationships between them. Plato and Aristotle can be regarded as the initiators of the discussion surrounding the definition of knowledge. Although there are several points at which...

The Philosopher’s Explanation of Reason and Empiricism

Epistemology, Metaphysics, & Reason Rene Descartes is one of the world’s most famous philosophers that influenced the way people see the world and make meaning out of it. Many of these theorists’ ideas were considered to be authentic and radical. For instance, he was the first one to question human...

The Impact of the Locke’s Democratic Theory on the Contemporary Governance

Introduction John Locke (1632-1704) is one of the most influential classical democratic theorists whose ideas have defined the modern theory of democracy. John Locke is famously known as the father of classical liberalism. His writings on democracy are still influential in modern society, especially in the United States (Forstron, 2010)....

What Is Enlightenment? By Immanuel Kant: Analysis

Kant calls the era of the Enlightenment the most important stage in human history marked by a fundamental change in the attitude of mankind to its inherent ability to judge. Kant believes that before the Enlightenment, humanity did not understand and did not properly use its inherent intelligent abili[A1] ty....

Philosophy of Death and Dying

Introduction For quite a long period of history, issues related to death and dying were within the scope of the church’s professional competences. Representatives of Christian denominations explained the afterlife to the common people and took care of the dying. With the development of a natural-scientific view, the monopoly of...

The Effects of Trade Unions on Alienation at Work

Introduction The concept of alienation was first proposed by the German philosopher Karl Marx in his famous work Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844. He argued that the modern production methods forced workers to abandon their humanity and embrace the role of an easily replaceable element in a large oppressive...

Theory of Knowledge: Emotions and Knowledge

By definition, emotion is: “an affective state of consciousness in which joy, sorrow, fear, hate, or the like, is experienced, as distinguished from cognitive and volitional states of consciousness” (“Emotion” par. 1). Emotions most often conduce us to a conclusion, where we agree or disagree with a certain fact, and...

Ethical Theories: Virtue Ethics, Deontology and Consequentialism

Ethical theories give guidance on decision-making, especially when a person has to consider ethics in their actions and reasoning. There are three ethical theories; virtue ethics, deontology, and consequentialism. Virtue ethics is a philosophical approach to ethics that is primarily concerned with the person’s character rather than duties as the...

“What Is Enlightenment?” by Immanuel Kant

On the one hand, the concept of “enlightenment” can be understood as a specific historical era – for example, it is about enlightened absolutism – and on the other, a certain moral, legal, and social program. This possibility of an ambiguous interpretation of the term “enlightenment” determines the originality of...

Application of Nietzsche’s Thoughts on Daily Life

The contemplation behind Nietzsche’s philosophy projects the meaning of values and their importance to existence. Regarding nature, Friedrich Nietzsche emphasizes that humans are at a development stage that is not final but transitional. Subsequently, living can never become too complacent or gratified with their accomplishments without putting their claim of...

Is the World About Us?

One of the central branches of philosophy studying the nature of being is called ontology, and the question of being itself is one of the major topics in philosophy. The formation of this discipline began precisely with the study of the nature of being. Ancient Indian, Chinese, and Greek philosophy...

Concepts of Justice in Relation to Modern American Society

Social justice is generally assumed to be necessary for any progressive society. However, it is unclear how to define justice, and many philosophers have been working on the problem since ancient times. The current paper reviews some essential ideas of justice and reflects on how these ideas are relevant to...

Odysseus Personality in Terms of Aristotle’s Ethics

Relations between people in the societies of Ancient Greece should be evaluated under the ethics of that period. Therefore, the actions of the main character of Homer’s Odyssey are proposed to be examined in terms of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics criteria, within the framework of practical philosophy. This approach will allow...

Michel Foucault’s Biography and Philosophical Works

Michel Foucault was born on October 15, 1926, in the small provincial town of Poitiers, France. From a young age, he was expected to follow the medical path as both his father and grandfather were surgeons. They did everything they could to ensure that he receives the best education possible....

God Is Dead: Friedrich Nietzsche’ Argument

Introduction Many philosophers, researchers, and scientists have explored the problem of God or any other immaterial power that can explain humans’ existence. Friedrich Nietzsche, who lived during the Industrial Revolution that brought crucial changes not only to the everyday life of people but also to their thinking, claimed that God...

Comparative Analysis of Socrates and Jesus of Nazareth

Socrates and Jesus of Nazareth are very similar characters that can be both perceived as prophets from different perspectives. Socrates and Jesus were significant and powerful figures due to the divine strength they obtained (Wright 374). Socrates was told by an oracle that he was the wisest of men and,...

Personal Philosophy of Success and Strategies

Success is the individual’s ability to overcome a challenge or task in a particular situation. It is important to note that philosophically, success is a relative term meaning, it ranges from small magnitudes of achievement to considerably larger ones. Nevertheless, it is crucial to relate to certain aspects of principles...

Philosophy of the Concept of Solipsism and How It Differs From Others

Throughout history, humans have tried to make sense of the world around them. Through observation, discussion, and theory crafting, individuals have managed to present specific ideas on the nature of broader concepts. Practices that study the fundamental aspects of human existence can be called philosophy. Many great minds have combined...

Sima Qian: Reasoning on the Concept of “The Root”

When analyzing “the root” that Qian puts into the essence of The First Emperor, one can conclude that this term implies a natural order, which is the root cause. In his description of Li Si, the author notes that all attempts to interpret the consequences of the minister’s actions were...

Moral Status and the Nature of Human Person

Philosophy makes an attempt to gain a better understanding of the world through questioning the established traditions and the preconceived notions people often hold. Many of the questions formed in this process do not have a concrete answer and serve as a way for an individual to think about any...

Importance to be an Individual Among the Crowd

Transcendentalists, such as Emerson and Thoreau, put a great deal of emphasis on one’s individualism. For example, in the case of the latter philosopher, he promoted the concept of self-reliance as the basis of independent thought and ideas. I think that the term is highly important because people, as social...

Liberty and the Common Good: COVID-19

In modern political culture, libertarianism has acquired new supporters and has taken on a new existence. The philosophical underpinnings of libertarianism are essential to discuss because they can point out the limitations of the ethical system in the present context. To explore the issue, it was chosen to focus on...

“The Variety of Religious Experience” by William James

At the turn of the 20th century, America began to see a surge in religions of healthy-mindedness that would eventually change the landscape of modern medicine. Taken from William James’ pivotal lecture “The Religion of Healthy-Mindedness,” this distinction of American religions would provide the groundwork for an entire genre of...

Classical Political Thought Through the Prism of Greek Philosophy

Gorgias’ argument in The Encomium of Helen for why Helen of Troy is not responsible for the Trojan War Among the few complete sophistic texts that have survived until these days, one stands out for its complexity, logical beauty, and neatness of argument. The Encomium of Helen by the greatest...

Do People Have Free Will? Psychologists Answer

One of the central and widely discussed questions of neuroscience and philosophy is whether we have free will. Scientists’ opinions about what free will is, and even about the reality of its existence, are very contradictory. The idea of free will can be conveyed as the ability for self-control, and...

The Reasons Why Torture is Unacceptable

Torture has always been a tool employed by people to extract vital information from individuals that possess important knowledge or simply humiliate them into submission and despair. Historically, torture was used as a means to receive confessions from criminals and witnesses (Hoadley et al. 248). Only recently did it disappear...

Ethics and Popular Opinion in Socrates’ Philosophy

The importance of public opinion is crucial in modern-day society and cannot be underestimated. The majority of people’s views should be taken into consideration and given publicity when a controversial issue is being discussed. Socrates, a Greek philosopher, was trialed and executed for his controversial opinion on multiple subjects. His...

Impartiality in Making an Ethical Decision

Morality is a complex phenomenon, and philosophers have debated its nature for a long time. Many theories examine ethics and how people make ethical decisions. It is especially interesting to discuss how people make choices when they involve the interests of people they are connected to in a meaningful way....

Utilitarian View on the Weight of Human Sacrifice

The notion of sacrifice is familiar to practically any human being ever alive on this planet. Whether it is a material thing, or one’s desire to pursue a dream, everyone at some point in his or her existence had to put something at stake for the sake of a greater...

Postmodernism. History. Christian Apologetics

Introduction Throughout history, humans have always tried to understand and explain the world around them. The need to find meaning and purpose in their life and natural curiosity brought many to devising various systems of understanding, forming complex worldviews. The world’s major religions are one of the more common types...

Conceptual Ideas of the Long Nineteenth Century Intellectuals

Introduction Philosophers and thinkers formulate not only urgent problems for society but also look for their causes and solutions. Intellectuals in the Long Nineteenth century criticized aspects of their time’s political and social order and discussed natural human needs. Figures such as Edmund Burke, William Blake, Leo Tolstoy, Sigmund Freud,...

Aristotle and His Vision of the Virtues of Man

Aristotle has provided humanity with a great number of philosophical concepts that are meant to contain a full description of human nature and exact guidelines that lead to harmony in a person’s mind and soul. The idea that a person is free to choose whether or not he/she wants to...

Spirituality, Ethics, and Postmodern Relativism

Christians believe that spirituality and ethics are extrinsic to a person and immutable, as they come from God. Is there truth beyond science? (n.d.) highlights this reliance on knowledge that cannot be confirmed by humans as a characteristic that it shares with science. This purported existence of a singular set...

Asian Philosophies. Comparative Analysis

Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism are among the most influential Asian philosophies, and they all happened to influence China in particular. From China, they spread to Korea and Japan together with the writing system, which had a noticeable impact on their cultures. Although the degree of spirituality of the philosophies varies,...

Should Kant be Criticized for His Absolutism?

Immanuel Kant was the German philosopher of the eighteenth century, whose ideas argued time, morality, space, and nature. One of his principal works was The Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, which categorized humans’ primary moral duties and discussed their impact on their lives. Kant’s statements rejected happiness as a...

Naturalism, Transcendentalism, Social Anxiety and Fear

Modern advances in manufacturing, space travel, and science perpetuate immense corporate appetites of global companies that continue to abuse the planet’s natural resources for short-term financial benefit. The dystopian society is what many modern thinkers predict to come at some point in the future. The Space Merchants by Cyril Kornbluth...

Consequentialist Deontological Ethical Theories

Introduction The term ethics has a variety of definitions. It can be viewed as a branch in philosophy that tries to define moral notions like defining wrong and right (Bookchin, 2004). It can also be defined as the science of individual obligation (Bentham, 1999). Nature of law assumes that law...

The Comparison of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke’s Views

Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were famous English philosophers who became the classics of 17th-century political thought. They considered such issues as the state of nature, the social contract, the right of revolution, limits of power, and property rights. Although their political and philosophical views had something in common, they...

“Old” and “New” Metaphysics

The main difference between the old and the new metaphysics is in the philosophical problems they seek to address. The old metaphysics, going back up to the Ancient Greek philosophers such as Parmenides and Aristotle, was preoccupied with the matters of essence and existence. The classic example of a problem...

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A Philosophical Puzzle from John Locke’s Perspective

Introduction The physical tangibility of material reality and the extent to which it is dependent on the personal perceptions of an individual is, perhaps, one of the most contentious topics that have been discussed throughout the history of philosophy. In the famous dilemma of a falling tree, the question of...

Comparison of the Views of Hobbes and Machiavelli

Human nature has been and remains one of the most relevant topics for the study of philosophers of various specializations. People approach this problem from different points of view and at multiple levels. Despite the tremendous amount of research on this topic, the works of ancient masters remain relevant to...

The Precession of Simulacra

Abstract People in the 21st century perceive the world in a significantly different way from their counterparts from the 14th century. Jean Baudrillard argues that a considerable shift has occurred, and human beings can no longer determine what reality is. He states that individuals are surrounded by “models of real...

Connections Between Aristotle’s Views of the Universe and Aquinas’s

Aristotle inspired many philosophers and thinkers with his ideas of how the universe functions. One of the people who built on the ideas of Aristotle was Aquinas, a well-renounced theologian. The similarities between Aristotle and Aquinas’s views on the universe are in their interpretation of knowledge and some views of...

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It is a common misconception that Confucius wrote the Analects. In fact, although the text is composed of his sayings, there is no singular author of the book since it includes various fragments of the teachings of Confucius’ students. Therefore, Analects is a collection of Confucius’ sayings put together by...

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Introduction Moral issues often appear in philosophy, literature, and even politics, since morality forms the basis of human activity. Morality is a set of norms of behavior adopted in a particular society or the mind of a specific person. People acquire morality in the process of life, and it can...

Philosophical Thought of Paul Sartre

Jean-Paul Sartre Jean-Paul Sartre is one of the most known French existentialists of the twentieth century. His ideas were expressed in numerous works related not only to philosophical writings but also to plays (Hayim, 2017). The main problems that he discussed were connected to the notion of freedom as a...

Stakeholders Karl Popper and the Vienna Circle

Introduction Scientific progress has taken different shapes over the past centuries, including the discovery of new ideas or phenomena, the emergence of theories, the promotion of analytical methods and procedures, and technological advancements. Due to the nature of these processes and how they take shape, different scholars and philosophers have...

The Definition of Euthyphro Dilemma

The Divine Command theory can be interpreted in two ways. From the Euthyphro Dilemma point of view, morality is either created by God or exists without him and is related by him to people (Carneades.org, 2013). If God is the creator of morality, anything, even murder, can be viewed as...

Studying Liberal Arts and Sciences Essence and the Role

Abstract The research describes the essence and the role of liberal education. The definition of the liberal arts and sciences has been provided; the role of liberal education in the democratic society has been described; the importance of studying liberal arts and sciences has been applied to the field of...

Crito’s Concern About Reputation

When Crito expresses concern about his reputation, Socrates inquires why one needs to worry about “the opinion of the many (44c).” At first glance, it may seem that the philosopher rebels against the social order of Athens. Upon further investigation, it becomes clear that he does not devalue but rather...

Immortality: Blessing or Curse?

Immortality, an ability to live forever, has been contemplated by philosophers since ancient times. There is hardly a person who would not have thought, at least once, how it would be – to live eternally. Physical and mental never-ending bodies would obtain the opportunities to explore each of the Earth’s...

The Perspectives of Protestantism

Introduction The evaluation of the same religion from two different positions makes it possible to assess the perception of individual concepts and dogmas and describe specific approaches to the interpretation of relevant opinions. As a background for analysis, Protestantism as a branch of Christianity will be used, and etic and...

Plato’s Republic – The Most Outstanding Points

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Philosophy: The Trial of Socrates

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The Centrality of the Concept of Power

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The Ancient Greek Philosophers: The Heritage in Modernity

European and a number of other contemporary societies may be called a direct or indirect product of ancient Greek culture. In ancient Greek philosophy profound ideas about the relationship between knowledge and opinion, truth and logical error, and dialectics as a method of cognition were formulated. These ideas served as...

“What We Have to Lose” by Theodore Dalrymple

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