Free Essays on Philosophy: Examples and Topic Ideas |

Free Essay Examples on Philosophy

Pyrrhonian Scepticism: Arguments and Beliefs

The sceptic philosophy emanated from the ancient sceptics from Greece. Scepticism emanated from the Greek word scepsis, which means investigation. The sceptics saw themselves as investigators (Machuca, Pyrrhonism in Ancient 11). Sceptics did not propose any ideas or beliefs themselves, neither did they dispute the fact that knowledge could be arrived at. At its epicentre, early scepticism was characterised by…

Words: 1398
Topic: Philosophy

Immanuel Kant, David Hume, Friedrich Hegel: Political Discourse

Introduction This paper traces the advancement of political thought via a study of some key writers of political discourse such as Immanuel Kant, David Hume, and Friedrich Hegel. Emanuel Kant was a German philosopher, and he was well known for his enormous contribution towards shaping the modern philosophy. Hume was a Scottish philosopher, and he aimed at developing the science…

Words: 2003
Topic: Philosophy

Justice and Happiness in Plato’s “Republic”

Plato’s Republic focuses on the discussion of the meaning of justice and explores a connection between the just man and his happiness providing evidence that supports the notion that inability to do “one’s own business” disrupts a person’s capacity to maintain “the unity of their souls” thereby breaking the link between justice and the good (433b-443e). This paper will discuss…

Words: 558
Topic: Philosophy

Voltaire’s Vision of Religion and Enlightenment

Philosophers and thinkers have always been the main contributors to the evolution of scientific thought and promoted the further evolution of our society. It is impossible to imagine the modern world without the discoveries made by outstanding people. They changed the image of the world and promoted the blistering development of human thought. Voltaire was one of these people. Being…

Words: 567
Topic: Philosophy

Personal Worldview, Prime Reality, and Religion

For every particular field of study, prime reality is the concept to explain on the basis of one’s personal feelings, beliefs, and comprehension. For Christian theism representatives, it appears to be a personal God, whose nature is unveiled in the Holy Scriptures. Supporters of postmodernism, however, take a naturalistic approach to the concept explanation and deny the essence of God.…

Words: 950
Topic: Philosophy

W. Kymlicka on Human Rights and Culture Protection

Introduction The need to ensure every human being enjoys his or her rights has pushed societies to establish institutions that promote the realisation of this goal. Some people argue that evolution has pushed people from living in jungles to civilized societies.1 This essay is an assessment of Will Kymlicka’s argument that protection of rights implies protection of cultures. Definition Will…

Words: 1571
Topic: Philosophy

Morality in Kant’s, Mill’s, Aristotle’s Philosophies

Kant’s views about the nature of morality and how it is related to intellect Kant is one of the early philosophers who produced a number of works on human nature. In his talks, Kant described and stipulated on regarding morality depicts rational self-determination as the highest moral value in human life. In his opinions about mortality, Kant goes against the…

Words: 2205
Topic: Philosophy

“A Treatise of Human Nature” by David Hume

A Treatise of Human Nature is a work of David Hume, which was published in three consecutive parts from 1738 to 1740. Hume was a Scottish philosopher who was increasingly fascinated by the study of human knowledge and mind. In A Treatise of Human Nature, Hume attempts to explore the idea of human knowledge from a philosophical point of view,…

Words: 878
Topic: Philosophy

Soren Kierkegaard Views on Ethics, Morals and Religion

There is no use denying the fact that humanity has always been affected by such phenomena as ethics, morals, and religion. Going along with society, these notions influenced human beings and introduced some changes to their lives. It should also be said with the increase in the complexity of society. These issues also obtained some new peculiarities. One remembers the…

Words: 1386
Topic: Philosophy

Personal Worldview, Spirituality and Afterlife

Introduction A personal worldview is an essential thing for any confident person to develop because it identifies his or her attitude towards one’s life and understanding of our environment. All people have different values and goals in their lives, which makes all individuals different and unique. Therefore, the following paper is to address my personal worldview, which I stick to…

Words: 936
Topic: Philosophy

Judaism in Steinheim’s and Luzzatto’s Perceptions

The perception of Judaism changed over time. It evolved with the alterations in mainstream philosophies. Nevertheless, some thinkers stood out due to being anti-philosophical and having anti-rational opinions on Judaism. One of the outstanding philosophers was Solomon Ludwig Steinheim. Unlike other philosophers of his time, he did not believe in the metaphysical truth of Judaism. Instead, he claimed that revelation…

Words: 723
Topic: Philosophy

Religion in Marx’s and Nietzsche’s Philosophies

Introduction Religion can be defined as a set of beliefs and practices that explain the relations between people and their God. Every religion is characterized by beliefs and religious practices that all its followers observe. Each religion has its own distinct practices that distinguish it from others (Brenkert 56). The majority of religious convictions trace their origin from a spiritualist…

Words: 1678
Topic: Philosophy

Thomas Reid’s Ideas on Common Sense Realism

Thomas Reid strongly believed in the power of common sense. He argued that human beings should not waste their time trying to justify what they perceive because everything in nature is self-evident. He insisted that human beings should just consider the realities in the things they see and stop being sceptical about them. He further argues that nature is God-given,…

Words: 1104
Topic: Philosophy

Genesis and “The Oration on the Dignity of Man”

Genesis inspired a number of philosophers. Pico della Mirandola was influenced by it as well. At the beginning of the speech, the philosopher puts forward the thesis of human greatness, his superiority over all creatures, “man is the intermediary between all creatures, close to the highest and lowest lord over, the interpreter of nature in virtue of discernment of the…

Words: 923
Topic: Philosophy

Honor: Traditional Meaning and Broader Definition

Introduction Our society rests on some basic ideas and notions that create the basis for its further rise and evolution. Such unique phenomena as pride, dignity, joy, devotion, etc. are an integral part of our everyday life. They appeared at the very first stages of the evolution of the human world and had been going along with society. Besides, honor…

Words: 500
Topic: Philosophy

Cicero’s Views on Citizenship and Ethics

Cicero argued that virtue is at its best when it is applied by the state or by government. He argued that political action is the only way of putting virtue to use and that this comes naturally. In this context, one may be mistaken for believing that such actions would be totally voluntary. On the other hand, if politics was…

Words: 643
Topic: Philosophy

Utilitarianism Theory: Applications and Issues

What you have learned concerning the theory A welfarist philosophy is largely presumed or applied in utilitarianism theory. In other words, it is necessary to have a thorough grasp of the welfarist theory before applying the principle of utilitarianism. This implies that that the theory of utilitarianism is constructed using the key tenets derived from the welfarist principle. These include…

Words: 1405
Topic: Philosophy

Revolution Leaders and Masses in Fanon’s Work

Fanon’s “The Wretched of the Earth” established himself as a most formidable scholar in various aspects, including colonialism, nationalism, decolonization, black consciousness, language, and identity, among other things (Fanon and Philcox 25). Much of Fanon’s work continue to suffice as instrumental in many faculties such as philosophy, political science, cultural studies, psychology, among other areas. Fanon’s studies gave birth to…

Words: 1988
Topic: Philosophy

Critical Perspective on Mind

The question of the rise of mental torture with regards to the insecurity on how the views of people on oneself are presented is a challenge in the society that seeks to verify some justification. This study will cover critically on the perspective of mind in a philosophical approach, exploring on the components that sustain such issues. The issues include…

Words: 555
Topic: Philosophy

The Duality of Rene Descartes’ Provisions

It is worth noting that Rene Descartes was one of the greatest philosophers who made a great contribution to the development of science, philosophy, and the society as a whole. He was a mathematician, philosopher, physicist, physiologist, and an authoritative metaphysician. He established the foundations of analytic geometry, contemporary algebraic symbols, and the modern European rationalism. In addition, he identified…

Words: 1672
Topic: Philosophy

Epistemology’ and Education’ Theories

Introduction Epistemology is one of the most interesting branches of philosophy. It deals with the numerous question raised by various philosophers about education. One of the many questions raised by persons in the profession over the years is the definition of knowledge. Many philosophers believe that knowledge acquisition in education is dependent on the ability of the student to identify…

Words: 569
Topic: Philosophy

Science Definitions and Dunbar’s Mind Theory

Introduction Science is derived from a Latino word “Scientia”, implying acquisition of knowledge. The word science does not have a universal definition. The new Webster Collegiate Dictionary states that scientific knowledge is acquired through both studies and practice. This includes knowledge obtained through experimentation of events using scientific methods; thus, science is a process of gaining knowledge. Natural events are…

Words: 2523
Topic: Philosophy

“Philosophy: The Power of Ideas” by Brooke and Kenneth

Explain and evaluate the Hindu ideas of Brahman, atman and reality Karma stands for “action” that leads to a number of outcomes, as a result of man’s desire for earthly things (Moore & Bruder 489). For example, Karma suggests that a noble action leads to happiness, whereas, an evil action results in grief and unhappiness. Samsara stands for renaissance or…

Words: 1316
Topic: Philosophy

Politics in Thomas Jefferson’s “Selected Letters”

Having read Thomas Jefferson’s “Selected Letters”, it is possible to say that each of them contains issues which deserve attention. The ideas delivered by the president are clear and imperative. It is impossible to leave reasonable and argumentative statements without attention. Having read the “Selected letters”, much information seems interesting and educative. In the letter to Pierre Samuel DuPont de…

Words: 557
Topic: Philosophy

Kant’s and Mill’s Ethical Philosophies

Introduction Human beings have always been troubled by various ethical and moral issues. These issues are associated with the major principles that define what is wrong or right. Principles of human morality usually focus on the distinction between bad and good behaviors. However, societies and individuals have developed diverse values of conduct thus resulting in ethical dilemmas. Morality is a…

Words: 1379
Topic: Philosophy

Jacksonian Democracy and Manifest Destiny

Difference from Predecessors The history of the United States is riddled with ambiguous and often controversial events, people, and ideas. Even though all of these ideas are built to fit the profile of a democratic concept as a part of the philosophy created by the Founding Fathers, some of the historical characters seem strange as political innovators, to say the…

Words: 570
Topic: Philosophy

Descart: Modern Philosophy

The process of understanding the invisible has always been interesting to the philosophers of the epochs preceding the development of science and medicine to the extent when the miracle of thinking could have been explained physiologically. Descartes’ vision of the concept of mind and body and their interconnections is still widely discussed in the philosophical circles as the basic misconception…

Words: 1131
Topic: Philosophy

Decartes’ Critique in “The Concept of Mind” by Ryle

Since the philosophy was first implemented as a science, the question of correlation and interrelation between human body and mind preoccupied numerous thinkers throughout the history. Descartes created one of the most influential theories of mind, which prevails to be the basis for subsequent elaborations on the given issue. However, some philosophers do not perceive Descartes’ theory to be efficient,…

Words: 493
Topic: Philosophy

Confucianism and Chinese Culture

Introduction Virtually, every country cherish specific codes of ethics that makes them unique and therefore, exceptional. As a code of ethics, Confucianism was adopted amongst the Chinese people as the official religion that inspired faith in the Han, Shang, Zhou, and Xia Dynasties (Yang 245). People across the world have some sort of religious believes to which they are identifiable.…

Words: 335
Topic: Philosophy

Self-Concept in Buddhist Reductionism

Introduction This paper aims to investigate the idea of self in its relation to the Buddhist perception of suffering. Also, the notion of objectual and intentional properties will be briefly discussed. The Talk of Persons as Useful Fiction Buddhism, being a significantly variegated and complex religious and philosophical movement, comprises numerous varieties, which have different interpretations of the core questions…

Words: 574
Topic: Philosophy

American Soldiers as Deontologists

The fundamental aspect of being a soldier is the acceptance and willingness to follow all the rules given by one’s superiors. The power hierarchy is, thus, very important in the military and army bases. Due to this, soldiers usually experience personal battles regarding whether to take an order as expected or whether to use their ethics to make decisions. This…

Words: 579
Topic: Philosophy

Animal Liberation from Peter Singer’s View

In this paper I will explore Singer’s claim that our practice of farming non-human animals for human consumption involves systematic moral wrongdoing and that such attitude towards the creatures of the same species as humans is highly immoral because it is close to severe racism and sexism and can be called “speciesism”. First of all, I will elaborate on Singer’s…

Words: 1257
Topic: Philosophy

Plato and Aristotle Differences

Introduction Aristotle and Plato are two celebrated philosophers of ancient Greece who made significant contributions in different fields of humanities, philosophy, and science. Although their teachings inform our understanding of politics, science, and ethics, throughout the centuries, the works of Aristotle have been celebrated more than Pluto’s works. For example, the fields of science and logical reasoning have greatly relied…

Words: 1419
Topic: Philosophy

Little Speech of Liberty and Mayflower Compact

Introduction Conservatism is a social and political philosophy which aims at retaining traditions. It aims to pursue justice and freedom. A conservative is a person who follows conservatism philosophies. Classical conservatism is practiced by organic society where equality of the people is not such a necessity. The conservatives believe strongly in the stability of the society and the state. The…

Words: 692
Topic: Philosophy

Virtue Ethics as an Army Officer’s Moral Code

Aristotle suggests that Virtue ethics is the foundation of a person’s moral character. At the core of the theory is the ideal virtuous person. A person that is kind and generous because part of their moral fabric seeks nothing in return for helping others develop good character traits. The development of a person’s moral character begins at a very early…

Words: 1918
Topic: Philosophy

Sub-Man in Simone de Beauvoir’s Philosophy

The contribution of Simone de Beauvoir to the development of contemporary philosophy and Western culture as a whole could hardly be overlooked. Primarily, her most recognizable work is The Second Sex essay, which is considered to be one of the central texts of the feminist movement. However, she contributed to the modern ethics and philosophy by consistently elaborating on her…

Words: 590
Topic: Philosophy

The Japanese Philosophy of Kaizen

The significance of a positive change is intrinsically characteristic of any culture (Pyzdek & Keller, 2014a). However, when viewed through the lens of a specific set of traditions, philosophies, a and the world picture, the phenomenon shapes, gaining new shades of meaning and incorporating more wisdom. Although kaizen, which is the Japanese interpretation of the continuous improvement concept (Henry, 2014),…

Words: 579
Topic: Philosophy

Law and Morality Relationship: Kant vs. Fuller

Introduction The law is considered one of the most important building blocks of our society. Modern law covers almost every aspect of life, ranging from the most basic concepts such as the protection of life, health, and private property, to regulating trade, formalizing marriage, and assigning penalties for misconduct. The establishment of laws ended the rule of the strong and…

Words: 1398
Topic: Philosophy

Meaning and the Process of Achieving Success

Introduction There are different perspectives of success. The term success has diverse meanings for different individuals. For instance, certain people attribute the level of monetary reward to success. However, one basic fact is that everyone yearns to attain success. People have associated various achievements to success. Several people fail because they do not understand the meaning of success. In order…

Words: 552
Topic: Philosophy

Role of Changes in Our Life

Change is a continuous occurrence in the life of individuals. Our views, bodies, environments, and feelings are subjects of continuous change. In as much as people take some time to adjust, change introduces challenges that may be minor or major. Fundamentally, people are usually reluctant to changes. Therefore, the changes that occur receive some scale of reaction because individuals try…

Words: 674
Topic: Philosophy

Utilitarian Philosophy: Advantages and Shortcomings

Utilitarianism is a branch of moral philosophy that promotes the idea that the means applied can be justified by the results obtained. The proponents of this theory believe that traditional moral values and codes are futile as they do not contribute to the improvement of human existence. Thus, they claim that moral actions make sense only if they result in…

Words: 1721
Topic: Philosophy

The Divine Command Theory

The divine command theory sates that all human actions must be evaluated as moral or immoral in accordance with orders of God. What God permits is considered to be good, and vice versa what is prohibited by God is evil. According to this theory morality and moral obligations depend upon God (Austin par.2). At the same time, it must be…

Words: 586
Topic: Philosophy

Moral Philosophy: Goals and Concepts

Preliminary steps to appreciate the rightness of an action Before people can intuitively appreciate the rightness of a certain action, they may need to take two preliminary steps. In particular, they may consider potential consequences of an action. For instance, a policy-maker may need to think about the impact of budget cuts on various social groups. Additionally, individuals need to…

Words: 586
Topic: Philosophy

Trusting Emotions in the Pursuit of Knowledge

Introduction Answering the question whether one can know when to trust our emotions in the pursuit of knowledge we are to consider the definitions each of these notions expresses. There are cases when emotions are helpful and even necessary in knowing while in another case emotions are harmful. Everything depends on subject and a final outcome of knowledge. Considering history…

Words: 1594
Topic: Philosophy

Nature of Reality from Ancient Greek Philosophers Views

Heraclitus and the Nature of Reality Heraclitus said that basic substance in the universe is fire. He was drawn to this conclusion because he believed that everything changes. He was the one who made the commentary that no one steps into the same river twice (Moore & Bruder, 2008, p.26). He had a profound understanding of change. He was not…

Words: 1460
Topic: Philosophy

Utilitarianism and Its Favorable Features

Any human being is characterized by his/her actions. Their character determines the motifs of a person and proves his/her intentions. However, the given approach gives rise to a number of critical issues related to the subjectivity of the evaluation of any action. Numerous philosophers have sought to outline the main criteria that highlight the character of a certain action and…

Words: 566
Topic: Philosophy

Suffering and Duty in Buddha’s and Siderits’s Theories

Are We Obligated to Prevent Suffering? It could be hardly doubted that Buddhism as a philosophy and religion had a significant impact on the development of Western moral and ethical conceptions (Garfield et al. 293). It is also possible to notice that such influence became more apparent since the 19th century and to the present day due to the growing…

Words: 576
Topic: Philosophy

Immanuel Kant’ Views on Moral Worth

Introduction In contemporary society, morality binds all rational beings, and their actions are considered moral only if they emanate from reason and not sensual inclinations (Atwell 44). The moral quality of an action is determined by the motive or intention for its performance. Therefore, the consequences of an action have little to do with its morality because the intention behind…

Words: 1388
Topic: Philosophy

Equality in “The Politics” by Aristotle

The issue of equality has always been a ground for social conflicts. It was a subject of active debates and numerous pieces of philosophical and political writings. One of the outstanding works that discuss the origins of political life and organization of society is The Politics by Aristotle. Written centuries ago, it is still a valuable source of information that…

Words: 833
Topic: Philosophy

Kant’s Categorical Imperative in “Gone Baby Gone”

THE FIRST PREMISE According to Kant’s First Formulation, one should act as if those actions were a universal law of nature. This means that the moral choice should point toward a complete necessity and signify a rational decision that is not impacted by any subjective outlooks of the individual (White 42). Patrick, the leading character of the movie, finds himself…

Words: 553
Topic: Philosophy