Philosophy of Religion: The Power of Ideas

Explain and evaluate the notions of Karma, samsara, and Nirvana. Karma transmigratory cycle is influenced by one’s actions (Moore & Bruder, 2010). This means that every action has a specific cause and impacts. The impacts last over an extended period which may end up completing the transmigratory cycle. Hence, the…

Philosophical Ideas in Epistemology and Metaphysics

Rene Descartes’ argument for knowledge including the role of skepticism, the evil demon, and god in resolving his doubts Rene Descartes explains that Creator rules over all the animals in the world, despite the fact that people doubts His existence. From his assertions, it is clear that Descartes believes that…

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Powerful Ideas: An Introduction to Philosophy

The benefits of studying philosophy Apart from being an interesting subject that provides an insight into the development of modern society and its knowledge, philosophy is beneficial for students regardless of their majors. I think so because philosophy is connected to the development of critical thinking skills and offers various…

Introducing Order Into Life: Getting Priorities

Introduction Maintaining order in one’s life is an essential step toward creating a harmonic environment and, therefore, increasing life satisfaction rates (Sirgy, 2012). The reasons for choosing specific tools for managing the crucial elements of one’s routine are arguably very subjective; therefore, the efficacy of a certain device may vary…

“Critical Thinking” by Brooke Noel Moore and Richard Parker

Introduction The author of this piece commits some serious logical errors owing to the fact that he/she is trying to convince other readers to support his/her position based on a bad flow of reasoning (Andolina and Andolina, 2001). First, he goes on to assert that the murder of a young…

Philosophy Questions and Theories

Benefits of Studying Philosophy The main benefit of studying philosophy is the ability to think critically and insightfully approach the issue. This is also the most practical of the benefits, as it can help in decision-making on the daily basis. Aside from that, philosophy provides means for interpreting interpersonal relationships…

“Thus Spoke Zarathustra” a Book by Friedrich Nietzsche

Introduction You outcast, who cast yourself out, you do not want to live among humans and humans’ pity? Well then, do as I do! Thus will you learn from me too: only the one who does learn. (Nietzsche 233) The passage in question can be found in the fourth part…

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Hobbes and Arnaud’s Replies to Descartes’ Meditations

Introduction Rene Descartes was a thinker who was best known for his contribution in the field of philosophy. In Meditations, Descartes focuses on epistemic and metaphysical matters (Moriarty 13). Through this, he shed more light on the existence, mind, and answers about God. In the article, Descartes asserts that as…

President’s Speech on the High Levels of Corruption

Fellow countrymen, it gives me great pleasure whenever I address the nation on matters that are so pertinent. I am going to address the issue of high levels of corruption that has become so rampant. As a nation, our reputation and future success are critically dependent on compliance, not just…

“The Metaphysics of Morals” by Immanuel Kant

Is it wrong to punish a criminal primarily as a means to reform the criminal? Developing main principles of the doctrine of right, Kant states that punishment is just retribution for a committed crime, and any state has a right and obligation to cause suffering to a criminal. Speaking about…

Religion as the Opiate of Masses

Critical Analysis of the Quote According to Max, “religion is the opiate of masses” (48). This statement has elicited heated debate among scholars over the years as they try to analyze its meaning as per the thoughts of Max. In this quote, Max compares religion to opium, a drug known…

Book Questions: “Philosophy: The Power Of Ideas”

The view of Heraclitus regarding the nature of reality Being a well known Greek philosopher, Heraclitus tried to explain the character of things and the nature of the world. He was sure that fire was the main element that served as the basis for all things in the universe. Due…

“Philosophy: The Power of Ideas” by Moore and Bruder

Compare and evaluate Peter Abelard notion of moral intent with that of Heloise Abelard and Heloise have the same notion of moral intent because both of them regard morality as the product of the mind but not the product of an action. Abelard argues that immorality is an intention to…

The Time Arrow Direction

Summary The basic issue of concern for physics and philosophers nowadays is defining the direction of the time arrow. The arrow of time is known to be directed in the future. This means that all the events are arranged in chronological order, and human mind is adapted to such organization….

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Philosophy: The Power of Ideas

Explain (the main ideas and views) and evaluate (by giving arguments) the view of Heraclitus regarding the nature of reality? Heraclitus believed that the surrounding reality reflects the ongoing process of things being continually transformed. In its turn, this implied that the seeming spatial stability of this reality’s emanations is…

Powerful Ideas: An Introduction to Philosophy

Benefits of Studying Philosophy Studying philosophy can help a student to understand the way the world works. Philosophy develops intelligence and makes the person search for the truth instead of putting trust in everything. This science can teach to ask questions and look for the most accurate answers. It encourages…

The Book “Philosophy: the Power of Ideas”

Explain and critically evaluate the notions of Karma, samsara, and Nirvana Karma refers mainly to the concept of deeds and intentions that an individual or a group does while being alive in the world. It also captures the effects of those actions on other people and the rest of the…

Government Structures and Social Norms

The paper will examine an interdependent relationship between government and society. Governmental structure, duties and divisions of administration will be analyzed in comparison to the social norms, needs of people and preferred ways of ruling. Philosophical views of Edmund Burke, Montesquieu and Alexis de Tocqueville will be compared to illustrate…

Power and Wealth as a Source of Strength

Administering life A good example of ‘administering life’ is when human beings link money with power. Wealth is seen as a source of power. Rich people in society are highly regarded as compared to poor ones. Society has a way of linking wealth with power; this is a belief that…

The Pasteurization of France by Latour Bruno

Introduction Bruno Latour examines the sociology of primatologists and critically analyses laboratory procedures, relating them to real-life situations. In his writings, he reviews Louse Pasteur and his discovery of microbes (Lafarge 23). Latour gives an account of the social phenomena that surrounded Pasteur’s discipline and career. Latour did not accept…

Thomas Samuel Kuhn’s Epistemological Relativism

Introduction Thomas Samuel Kuhn is one of the most famous proponents of scientific revolutions. He influenced academic as well as social circles by postulating a term that is widely used today, the paradigm shift. This is after claiming that the scientific revolution does not follow a linear or a continuous…

Mahatma Gandhi and His Influences on Hinduism

Mahatma Gandhi, one of the greatest and most recognized spiritual leaders globally, was born on the 2nd of October, 1869. Gandhi became instrumental in fighting for India’s independence using non-violent means as well as championing for his people. His methods of attaining freedom inspired many across the globe, as this…

Expertize and Competence Distribution

The People Worth Being Called Experts… Are They? Because knowledge is the best treasure that mankind will ever possess, the theory of knowledge is nowadays as popular as ever. Both in the times immemorial, in the Medieval epoch, and the modern world with its technical and computer progress spreading worldwide,…

Socrates’ Innocence and Defense

To come in defense of Socrates, I will travel back in time and take my position as part of a jury in an Athenian court where Socrates stands accused of corrupting young minds thereby, subverting the democratic order of the day and impiety. My verdict is ‘not guilty’ for several…

Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung: Religious Beliefs

By applying psychological methods and interpretive frameworks to religious studies, Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung attempted to accurately describe the advantages and disadvantages of religious beliefs. According to the views expressed by Freud in his The future of an illusion, religious belief can have several positive implications for an individual…

Origin of Mental and Physical Phenomena

Since time immemorial, scholars and philosophers have been trying to explain the relationship between mind and body and the origin of mental and physical phenomena. The major theories exploring the mind-body problem can be divided into two major categories of dualistic and monistic theories. Notwithstanding the width of the gap…

Ancient Philosophy in “The Power of Ideas” by Moore and Bruder

Explain and evaluate the view of Heraclitus regarding the nature of reality Heraclitus is a well known Greek philosopher who was trying to explain the nature of things and the world. He was deeply consumed that everything which surrounds us was made of fire. He thought that it was the…

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Reality in “Philosophy: The Power of Ideas” by Moore and Bruder

Heraclitus on the Nature of Reality Heraclitus argues that there is no reality. Nature is constantly changing. Consequently, he equates permanence to illusion. In addition, he argues that change is not random. On the contrary, it is controlled by a cosmic order (Moore & Bruder, 2011). He refers to this…

Nature of Reality in Ancient Greek Philosophies

The Nature of Reality from the Perspective of Heraclitus Heraclitus believes that reality could be equated with fire (Moore & Bruder, 2011). The reason behind this is the fact that it is ever-changing. For this reason, he believes that there is no reality. According to him, permanence is nothing but…

Philosophy by Moore & Bruder: From Descartes to Kant

Explain and evaluate Rene Descartes argument for knowledge including the role of skepticism, the evil demon, and god in resolving his doubts Rene Descartes argument for knowledge revolves around skepticism, the evil demon, and God. Descartes uses skepticism as a tool to resolve his doubts and argues that if people…

Philosophy: Modern Metaphysics and Epistemology

Descartes and Dualism Descartes’s way of acquiring knowledge is one of the most interesting styles. According to Descartes, everything has two sides and can, therefore, appear as true or false depending on a person’s ability to interpret it. Skepticism is an important feature of the process of knowledge acquisition. Doubting…

Ancient Philosophy: The Power of Ideas on Reality

Heraclitus Heraclitus’s view concerning the nature of reality is that it keeps on changing. He argues that reality does not exist while permanence is an illusion. The most remarkable thought concerning Heraclitus’s view is that a person cannot step into the river twice because it constantly changes. Argumentatively, the water…

Philosophy as an Academic Discipline

Description of Discipline / Subject Matter Philosophy concerns itself with the study of problems fundamental to the existence of humanity and understanding of phenomena that is sometimes beyond regular human comprehension. The problems are general and may sometimes be connected to the questions and regarding existence, language, value, and reason….

“Liberalism and Social Action” by John Dewey

In 1935 philosopher John Dewey published Liberalism and Social Action. John Dewey was one of a number of intellectuals in the 1930s who openly articulated antagonism toward the free market economy that dominated most of the United States’ policies; John Dewey’s enmity was largely targeted toward the unequal distribution of…

Spiritual Philosophy: Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism

Hinduism, Buddhism, and Taoism These spiritual philosophies stress on the acceptance of things the way they are, overcoming desires and humility (Rudy, 2004). They also recognize the shortness of human life and limited personal achievements. They both believe in a certain way of life (dharma) and the universal principle of…

Existentialism, Its Themes and Philosophers

The main themes of existentialism The basic themes of existentialism include isolation, freedom of choice, meaninglessness, and death. A person’s life is not predetermined. Isolation, one’s struggle to become a person in the world, is one source of anxiety; responsibility of choice is another. A person has the freedom to…

Values and Attitude for Effective Human Services

Introduction Values refer to codes of conduct that a person holds as relevant, worth, or essential in life. On the other hand, attitude is the way of viewing or feeling about something, which is usually seen in a person’s form of conduct. Human service goes along with appreciating the well-being…

Analytic Philosophy and Its Conceptual Differences

The idea of analytic philosophy in contrast with other schools of philosophy Analytical philosophy has flourished in the United States and England. Analytical philosophy is characterized as a meta-linguistic discipline different from other schools of philosophy regarding empirical science (Stadler & Camilla, 2001). This philosophy is mainly concerned with our…

Human Nature Philosophy in the “Rashomon” Thriller

If you are not selfish you cannot survive In the world today, people have changed unlike in the past during the days of our ancestors. According to the stories we hear, in the past people lived together in harmony and as one big family. In those days everyone was concerned…

Utilitarianism: Moral Ideals and Practical Ethics

Every person regularly has to make choices of the moral character. While the law clearly defines, what is right or wrong, life does not seem to be that uniform. In fact, the laws are written as a representation of the current moral views. The easy example is slavery, which used…

Political Philosophy: Natural Law and Justice

The views of Hobbes and Locke on the state of nature and natural rights Hobbes believed that the state of nature is based on the natural rights as well as Locke. They also thought that people are free to acts as they want considering the natural rights. Still, their ideas…

Art Criticism and Aesthetics Philosophy

The connections between pleasure, contemplation, and judgment in aesthetic appreciation In aesthetic appreciation, when the object is contemplated, it is not only experienced by dint of sensory system but also enjoyed. Being rational creatures, people tend to judge the objects using their own standards of judgment based on interests. While…

Moral Philosophy, Its Theories and Challenges

The elements of moral dilemmas The elements of any moral dilemma are the following. The act Talking about the moral dilemma, we consider the moral act to be any human act made on the basis of one’s knowledge and with regard to one’s free will. It is always performed consciously…

David Hume and Friedrich Nietzsche: Cause and Effect Comparison

Understanding cause-and-effect can be like “brain cell gymnastics” when reading different Philosophers’ perspectives on the topic. This is because their theories often conflict with one another, which, at first, makes the topic very confusing for a reader; but later pulls the reader into much deeper thinking and appreciation of this…

Ethical Philosophy: Right and Wrong’s Distinction

The definitions of right and wrong are a fluid subject. Over the course of history and the evolution of human ethics, the concept has undergone significant changes. Many religions around the world are thousands of years old. They have participated in the formation of the society as we know it…

American Exceptionalism and Nation

Introduction A nation is a community characterized by two qualities – its limits and sovereignty. Both qualities usually have official and legal definitions for each particular nation. Also, these qualities, as well as other characteristics of a nation can be its internally perceived and promoted features. Specifically, the American nation…

Freedom in “On Liberty” by John Stuart Mill

Introduction The philosophical work “On Liberty” was written by J. S. Mill in 1859. These are the times of democratic republics’ heyday on the eve of slavery abolition in the US. The main idea centers on the understanding of the concept of individual freedom and the definition of public interference…

Morality and Ethics Concepts

What is Morality? Gert (2011), cites two definitions of morality; the first being descriptive in nature, whereas the second is normative. Descriptive morality refers to some codes of conduct put forward by a society or some other group such as a religion or accepted by an individual through his or…

Human or Humankind: “Oedipus Rex” by Sophocles

The Sphinx had asked Oedipus to crack a riddle, and if he succeeded, she promised to take her own life. The riddle went like this “What goes on four legs in the morning, two in the afternoon and three in the evening?” (Dawe 130). Oedipus responded by saying that the…

“Second Meditation” a Work by Descartes

In the “Second Meditation”, Descartes operates on concepts the core of which seems impossible to doubt. At the beginning of this meditation, he claims that there are no thoughts since he has convinced himself that there is nothing in the world. However, he further comes to a conclusion that he…

Imagination, Illusion and Sublimation in Happiness Achievement

Introduction Happiness as an e ethereal and elusive yet constantly desirable concept has been the object of pursuit since the dawn of humankind. The phenomenon of happiness as a state of being has a special place in Western Philosophy. The subject matter has been explored by Kant, Tocqueville, Du Chatelet,…

Fanon Frantz on Revolution Leaders and Masses

Introduction Revolutions are an integral aspect of political evolution in the society. The success or failure of such a movement is dependent on the conduct and capabilities of the leaders and the masses.1 To this end, it is important to analyze the roles of these two parties with respect to…

Friedrich Nietzsche’s Views on Human and Society

Writer’s Ideas It is paramount to note that there many ways to interpret the section titled “The madman.” The fact that this story can be regarded as provocative should not be overlooked. “God is dead” is a phrase that appears several times in the works of an author, and he…

Personal Worldview: Different Approaches

Introduction Every individual has a personal worldview that he or she uses both consciously and subconsciously to answer questions and make decisions. Spirituality also plays a significant role in one’s life as it guides people and offers them a set of rules and beliefs that construct a specific view of…

Aristotle’s Involvement in Social Issues

Introduction It may seem complicated to penetrate deeper into philosophy as such an endeavor requires people to concentrate on elevated matters while living up to their potential. Some people succeed, while others cannot find answers to philosophical questions even as they mature and continuously pose such conundrums to themselves. However,…

Mind-Body Dualism and Human Nature in Philosophy

Introduction Throughout the ages, people have tried to comprehend the world and understand their own place in this unique system. From the time the ability to think critically and analyze events first appeared, individuals used their brains not only to come up with ways to survive but also to improve…

Alexander Hamilton’s Economic Theory and Philosophy

Alexander Hamilton was the first economist in America who held a principal political figure, but he never managed to become a president in America. There was a great depression in the 1930s where he was allied with the monetary policies in reverence to the American economy that held accountability for…

Happiness as a Way of Living and Perceiving Reality

While discussing the topic of happiness and people’s attitudes to this concept, it is possible to speak about many individuals who view the idea of happiness differently. Thus, happiness can be defined by people in the most unexpected terms because of differences in their visions. It is even possible to…

Courage and Paul Tillich’s Philosophy and Theology

Introduction The category of courage is of keen interest in the fields of ethics, philosophy, and theology. There are many opinions on the subject in the literature, and many of them contradict each other. The topic of this paper is the courage to be, one of the central elements in…

The Theory of Meaning by Patricia Starck

Nowadays quickly changing world sets plenty of challenges for people causing stress and life-changing events. In this connection, the theory of meaning elaborated by Patricia Starck seems to be one of the solutions to overcome the rapid pace of life helping to handle everyday stress. Definition of Theory The middle-range…

Free Will and Determinism: Can They Coexist?

Introduction Through the pleasures and woes of life, humans often find themselves in states of regret, denial, or any of the plethoras of emotions felt after a regrettable or punishable action. One may wonder whether these emotions or reactions are reasonable. That would depend on whether humans are actually in…

Views on Ethics in the “Philosophy. The Power of Ideas”

Compare and evaluate Peter Abelard notion of moral intent with that of Heloise Heloise and Abelard are the typical representatives of the Christianizing Ethics. According to Abelards philosophy, there is a difference between moral defects and other defects, such as bad mental capabilities. He also distinguishes between moral defects and…

Philosophers Views about Reason

Introduction Philosophers such as Aristotle, Kant, and Mill dedicated a lot of their time in understanding reason and its role in day-to-day life. The reason is commonly understood as the power to think about using the human mind. People believe that it is the power to think that sets humans…

Rationalism and Empiricism Controversy

Introduction The controversy between rationalism and empiricism relates to the extent to which human beings depend on sense experience in the process of gaining knowledge. Rationalism is based on the assumption that knowledge is gained without reliance on sense experience (Cushman 86). On the contrary, empiricists argue that sense experience…

Life Meaning in Romantic, Realistic and Modern Era

Introduction This report presents an interview with the main characters of four books written in different periods (romantic, realistic, and modern). The characters are a famous scientist Victor Frankenstein and his monster for Frankenstein by Mary Shelly, Philip Pirrip from Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations, Eliza Doolittle and Henry Higgins from…

Tariq Ramadan’s View on Pluralism

Introduction Pluralism is a theory applied in different ways in philosophy to show that there is more than one substance in the universe. It is the opposite of dualism that holds the idea that there are only two substances within the universe. Monism, on the other hand, supports the idea…

The American Nation as an Imagined Political Community

Introduction The concept of the nation as an imaginary construct that binds people together using tangible beliefs, values, and history was introduced by Benedict Andersen in his book titled “Imagined Communities.” In the USA, the idea of a nation is very strong, as many people associate themselves with the ideals…

Evidentialism vs Non-Evidentialism Debate Exploration

At the root of evidentialism is the principle that one should only ground beliefs on the relevant evidence that one possesses. Clifford, one of the famous proponents of the view, argued that the level of knowledge (the amount of evidence) one has is proportioned to the belief. The philosopher’s view…

Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau Political Theories

Introduction Locke, Hobbes, and Rousseau came up with theories to explain the state of nature in different ways, and this helped shape political philosophy. Understanding the state of nature was important in order to understand how life was before the first government emerged. It also explains the reasons that necessitated…

Culture and Values Role in Societies and Organizations

Introduction Culture refers to a collection of behaviors, traditions, thoughts, ideas, and beliefs that distinguish a society or an organization from another. Culture determines the rules that should govern the way a firm or an organization should operate in a particular environment. Values refer to the central viewpoints that inspire…

“Good Life” From an Ethical Perspective

What is a Good Life? The question of what constitutes a good life was pursuing humanity since the dawn of time. However, as humankind developed and formed societies, the definitions of a good life needed to be assessed, as definitions solely through materialistic possessions were not only inaccurate, but also…

Philosophical Views of Ethics and Morality

Abelard and Heloise’s Notion of Moral Intent The central idea in their arguments was the same. Heloise argued that a wrong deed should not be considered as being against social morality if there were no intent to commit it (Moore & Bruder, 2011). Similarly, Abelard believed that one could only…

Philosophical Framework Based on Kantian Ethics

Philadelphia means the city of brotherly love. Using a rudimentary understanding of Greek language and thought, it is safe to say that philosophy is some sort of love for wisdom. It is my understanding that the passion for knowledge and wisdom inevitably leads to the construction of a personal philosophy,…

Chisholm’s & Goldman’s Internalism and Externalism

Chisholm’s views on the alternatives to internalism In his view, Chisholm seems appears to support the externalism view that “justification of knowledge” depends on a number of factors that are “external to a person”. This argument means that the actions of a person cannot be justified only by determining the…

The Paul Collier’s Liberal Approach Critique

Critique of the Collier’s Liberal Approach Political theorists have espoused liberalism as a political theory and practice that should be adopted by the whole world. Liberalism strikes an appealing chord to people because it tends to offer citizens of a given country total freedom from any kind of oppression since…

Direct Democracy from Rousseau’s Perspective

Introduction Jean-Jacques Rousseau is one of the most recognizable figures of the European Enlightenment. His contributions to political philosophy go beyond theoretical avenue. As an active political activist of his era, Rousseau substantially influenced the French Revolution and further paths of development of ideas in the fields of politics, philosophy,…

Spirituality, Pluralism, Scientism, Postmodernism

Personal worldview inventory Spirituality is a broad term that carries different meanings to different people. First, it means the act of connecting to a supernatural being to find meaning in life. Second, it refers to the establishment of deep connections with concepts such as nature, art, and music. Third, the…

Descartes’ Meditations and Believes

Meditation I. Descartes reflects on numerous deceptions he has believed in, and the ensuing faultiness of the body of knowledge he has developed based on those falsehoods (Descartes Existence of God 17). Consequently, Descartes decides to relinquish the inherent knowledge and develop a new one based on definite foundations. Notably,…

An Evaluation of the Seminal Work of Patricia Benner

Introduction In her article, Altmann (2007) focuses on analyzing Patricia Benner’s influential article “From novice to expert” with the aim of defending its philosophical, rather than theoretical, character. Altmann explains that her purpose is not to diminish the significance of Benner’s work, which is extensively applied in all spheres of…

Socrates’ Metaphors as an Inspiration

Socrates and Plato were always perceived as wise philosophers and changed the perceptions of the society and the insufficiency of the government while underlining the gravity of the principles of good and bad. Socrates’ dialogue with Glaucon about the darkness of the cave and puppet-like nature of the world was…

The Escape of Socrates in Plato’s “Crito”

In Plato’s work Crito, Socrates argues with his friend about the escape from prison. Crito has come to free him, but Socrates does not want to follow his friend’s advice and chooses to stay waiting for his punishment. Both Crito and Socrates present their arguments in support of their ideas….

Personal Worldview Philosophy: Prime Reality

Prime Reality: Definition The concept of prime reality has been discussed countless times by philosophers across the globe, yet no consensus has been reached so far. There are numerous approaches to defining the notion of prime reality; for instance, there is the assumption that God represents it. Other philosophies suggest…

Moral Philosophy: Virtuous Actions and Obligations

What preliminary steps mat be necessary before we can intuitively appreciate the rightness of action? According to Prichard in order to appreciate the rightness of a deed, two preliminary actions should be made. First, it is necessary to distinguish the consequences of the given action more fully than it has…

The Legacy of Ancient Civilizations Philosophy

As a matter of fact, the ancient texts are relevant even for the modern world. It seems that ancient people have known something that is hidden from today’s society. Ideas that are outlined in the ancient texts contain actual information, a unique philosophy that should be taken into consideration and…

Karl Marx’ Philosophical Ideas

Introduction As part of the Marxism theory, the writing by Karl Marx on capital expressed his sentiments on alienation and pain among the lower class workers imprisonment by the private individuals, who have the resources to manipulate and twist social, development, and welfare aspects of the masses in the society,…

Plato’s and Aristotle’s Views on Philosophy

Introduction It is worth noting that the two great philosophers Plato and Aristotle had polar views on the essence and the philosophy in general. Aristotle, unlike his teacher Plato, was interested not so much in the inner essence of the being, the fundamental principle of the world as such, but…

John Locke’s Utopian Ideas on Property

The Age of Enlightenment can be regarded as the epoch when people put reason above all and believed they could explain everything. Importantly, this was also the time when moral (Christian) values were seen as effective doctrines everybody followed without hesitation (Perez, 2012). John Locke is one of the most…

The Ethical Dilemma with the Transplant

Utilitarian and deontological approaches are similar in that they are both used for determining what actions of a human being are either right or wrong. Beyond this determination, the methods are very different: utilitarian (consequentialist) reasoning is associated with judging the consequences of specific actions; however, deontological reasoning determines whether…

Science in Shelley’s “Frankenstein” and Condorcet’s Works

The celebration of human reason in science began in the 18th century. The period was also known as the Enlightenment, and the works and achievements of its brightest representatives such as Luigi Galvani, Voltaire, Erasmus Darwin, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Immanuel Kant changed the lives of millions of people. It was…

US Soldier’s Ethics and Deontology

The perspectives of deontology, deriving from the root meaning duty, and associated with Immanuel Kant and William David Ross, suggest the ethical complexities facing a US soldier. Both thinkers focus on not depending on what one wants to do, but on what one has to do. Although the connection to…

Studying Philosophy and Its Benefits

1. Explain some of the benefits a student may gain by studying philosophy. While studying philosophy, a student can gain a range of benefits because of learning the principles of developing and analyzing the knowledge which can have different sources, including objective and subjective reality. As a result, knowing the…

“Utilitarianism” Essay by John Stuart Mill

Introduction The greatest thinkers living in different periods of human history have always tried to understand the real nature of appropriate and inappropriate things that a person can do. Therefore, there is a range of theories that are devoted only to the ethical norms of modern society or make attempts…

The Common Sense Realism Concept: Thomas Reid Views

Reid, a Scottish philosopher, held that common sense (sensus communis) should be the foundation of all modes of philosophical inquiry. He opposed the view of Hume on the subject (Forguson 23). The latter claimed that it was impossible for people to understand or know the external world since knowledge is…

Philosophy of Social Science and Education Research

Introduction In this section of the book, Nel Noddings (1998) discusses the main philosophical assumptions underlying education research as well as social science. This question is of great importance to scholars who examine the nature of scientific knowledge. The main purpose of this chapter is to show how theoretical views…

Machiavelli: The Man Who Refused to Be the Prince

Introduction Despite having been lauded as an innovator at the time when “the Prince” and “Discourses on Livy” were published, Machiavelli‘s ideas are regarded nowadays as rather dubious, and the author himself is often deemed as the advocate for evil. Although one must credit Niccolò Machiavelli for the creation of…

Kant vs. Fuller: Law and Morality

Introduction The rule of law is a subject of practical philosophy that has always been of high interest to philosophers willing to arrive at principles of pragmatic governance by either separating empirical applications of sets of rules governing human action from the pursuit of ends valuable in the moral sense…

The Toulmin’s vs. the Rogerian Arguments

Introduction Managing dilemmas and addressing conflicts as well as getting involved in any sort of analysis means being able to navigate among the existing options and analyze the arguments provided by each party to define the solution that suits the identified problem best. Traditionally, two types of arguments are used…

Socrates’ Decision to Stay in Prison

Discussion Socrates was imprisoned for corrupting the youth’s minds in Athens as well as defying the gods that the state recognized. Although Socrates’ contemporaries agreed that he had an opportunity to escape, he refused all of them. Socrates’ followers did not want to see their inspiring figure being executed by…

Spiritual Needs Assessment and Reflection

Interview Question: Are you a believer? Answer: I am, very much. I believe in God, and those moments in my life when I doubted his existence were the hardest moments for me. I am not much of a churchgoer because it was never a tradition in my family, and I…

Ten Philosophers Analysis: Their Lives and Contributions

Introduction There are several philosophers who have been studied for years. Their lives and contributions to several aspects of the society are both valued and acknowledged by many people. This essay looks at the contributions of ten influential philosophers of all time. The ten individuals are Karl Marx, John Locke,…