Government Structures and Social Norms

The paper will examine an interdependent relationship between government and society. Governmental structure, duties and divisions of administration will be analyzed in comparison to the social norms, needs of people and preferred ways of ruling. Philosophical views of Edmund Burke, Montesquieu and Alexis de Tocqueville will be compared to illustrate…

Power and Wealth as a Source of Strength

Administering life A good example of ‘administering life’ is when human beings link money with power. Wealth is seen as a source of power. Rich people in society are highly regarded as compared to poor ones. Society has a way of linking wealth with power; this is a belief that…

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The Pasteurization of France by Latour Bruno

Introduction Bruno Latour examines the sociology of primatologists and critically analyses laboratory procedures, relating them to real-life situations. In his writings, he reviews Louse Pasteur and his discovery of microbes (Lafarge 23). Latour gives an account of the social phenomena that surrounded Pasteur’s discipline and career. Latour did not accept…

Thomas Samuel Kuhn’s Epistemological Relativism

Introduction Thomas Samuel Kuhn is one of the most famous proponents of scientific revolutions. He influenced academic as well as social circles by postulating a term that is widely used today, the paradigm shift. This is after claiming that the scientific revolution does not follow a linear or a continuous…

Mahatma Gandhi and His Influences on Hinduism

Mahatma Gandhi, one of the greatest and most recognized spiritual leaders globally, was born on the 2nd of October, 1869. Gandhi became instrumental in fighting for India’s independence using non-violent means as well as championing for his people. His methods of attaining freedom inspired many across the globe, as this…

Expertize and Competence Distribution

The People Worth Being Called Experts… Are They? Because knowledge is the best treasure that mankind will ever possess, the theory of knowledge is nowadays as popular as ever. Both in the times immemorial, in the Medieval epoch, and the modern world with its technical and computer progress spreading worldwide,…

Socrates’ Innocence and Defense

To come in defense of Socrates, I will travel back in time and take my position as part of a jury in an Athenian court where Socrates stands accused of corrupting young minds thereby, subverting the democratic order of the day and impiety. My verdict is ‘not guilty’ for several…

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Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung: Religious Beliefs

By applying psychological methods and interpretive frameworks to religious studies, Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung attempted to accurately describe the advantages and disadvantages of religious beliefs. According to the views expressed by Freud in his The future of an illusion, religious belief can have several positive implications for an individual…

Origin of Mental and Physical Phenomena

Since time immemorial, scholars and philosophers have been trying to explain the relationship between mind and body and the origin of mental and physical phenomena. The major theories exploring the mind-body problem can be divided into two major categories of dualistic and monistic theories. Notwithstanding the width of the gap…

Ancient Philosophy in “The Power of Ideas” by Moore and Bruder

Explain and evaluate the view of Heraclitus regarding the nature of reality Heraclitus is a well known Greek philosopher who was trying to explain the nature of things and the world. He was deeply consumed that everything which surrounds us was made of fire. He thought that it was the…

Reality in “Philosophy: The Power of Ideas” by Moore and Bruder

Heraclitus on the Nature of Reality Heraclitus argues that there is no reality. Nature is constantly changing. Consequently, he equates permanence to illusion. In addition, he argues that change is not random. On the contrary, it is controlled by a cosmic order (Moore & Bruder, 2011). He refers to this…

Nature of Reality in Ancient Greek Philosophies

The Nature of Reality from the Perspective of Heraclitus Heraclitus believes that reality could be equated with fire (Moore & Bruder, 2011). The reason behind this is the fact that it is ever-changing. For this reason, he believes that there is no reality. According to him, permanence is nothing but…

Philosophy by Moore & Bruder: From Descartes to Kant

Explain and evaluate Rene Descartes argument for knowledge including the role of skepticism, the evil demon, and god in resolving his doubts Rene Descartes argument for knowledge revolves around skepticism, the evil demon, and God. Descartes uses skepticism as a tool to resolve his doubts and argues that if people…

Philosophy: Modern Metaphysics and Epistemology

Descartes and Dualism Descartes’s way of acquiring knowledge is one of the most interesting styles. According to Descartes, everything has two sides and can, therefore, appear as true or false depending on a person’s ability to interpret it. Skepticism is an important feature of the process of knowledge acquisition. Doubting…

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Ancient Philosophy: The Power of Ideas on Reality

Heraclitus Heraclitus’s view concerning the nature of reality is that it keeps on changing. He argues that reality does not exist while permanence is an illusion. The most remarkable thought concerning Heraclitus’s view is that a person cannot step into the river twice because it constantly changes. Argumentatively, the water…

Philosophy as an Academic Discipline

Description of Discipline / Subject Matter Philosophy concerns itself with the study of problems fundamental to the existence of humanity and understanding of phenomena that is sometimes beyond regular human comprehension. The problems are general and may sometimes be connected to the questions and regarding existence, language, value, and reason….

“Liberalism and Social Action” by John Dewey

In 1935 philosopher John Dewey published Liberalism and Social Action. John Dewey was one of a number of intellectuals in the 1930s who openly articulated antagonism toward the free market economy that dominated most of the United States’ policies; John Dewey’s enmity was largely targeted toward the unequal distribution of…

Spiritual Philosophy: Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism

Hinduism, Buddhism, and Taoism These spiritual philosophies stress on the acceptance of things the way they are, overcoming desires and humility (Rudy, 2004). They also recognize the shortness of human life and limited personal achievements. They both believe in a certain way of life (dharma) and the universal principle of…

Existentialism, Its Themes and Philosophers

The main themes of existentialism The basic themes of existentialism include isolation, freedom of choice, meaninglessness, and death. A person’s life is not predetermined. Isolation, one’s struggle to become a person in the world, is one source of anxiety; responsibility of choice is another. A person has the freedom to…

Values and Attitude for Effective Human Services

Introduction Values refer to codes of conduct that a person holds as relevant, worth, or essential in life. On the other hand, attitude is the way of viewing or feeling about something, which is usually seen in a person’s form of conduct. Human service goes along with appreciating the well-being…

Analytic Philosophy and Its Conceptual Differences

The idea of analytic philosophy in contrast with other schools of philosophy Analytical philosophy has flourished in the United States and England. Analytical philosophy is characterized as a meta-linguistic discipline different from other schools of philosophy regarding empirical science (Stadler & Camilla, 2001). This philosophy is mainly concerned with our…

Human Nature Philosophy in the “Rashomon” Thriller

If you are not selfish you cannot survive In the world today, people have changed unlike in the past during the days of our ancestors. According to the stories we hear, in the past people lived together in harmony and as one big family. In those days everyone was concerned…

Utilitarianism: Moral Ideals and Practical Ethics

Every person regularly has to make choices of the moral character. While the law clearly defines, what is right or wrong, life does not seem to be that uniform. In fact, the laws are written as a representation of the current moral views. The easy example is slavery, which used…

Political Philosophy: Natural Law and Justice

The views of Hobbes and Locke on the state of nature and natural rights Hobbes believed that the state of nature is based on the natural rights as well as Locke. They also thought that people are free to acts as they want considering the natural rights. Still, their ideas…

Art Criticism and Aesthetics Philosophy

The connections between pleasure, contemplation, and judgment in aesthetic appreciation In aesthetic appreciation, when the object is contemplated, it is not only experienced by dint of sensory system but also enjoyed. Being rational creatures, people tend to judge the objects using their own standards of judgment based on interests. While…

Moral Philosophy, Its Theories and Challenges

The elements of moral dilemmas The elements of any moral dilemma are the following. The act Talking about the moral dilemma, we consider the moral act to be any human act made on the basis of one’s knowledge and with regard to one’s free will. It is always performed consciously…

David Hume and Friedrich Nietzsche: Cause and Effect Comparison

Understanding cause-and-effect can be like “brain cell gymnastics” when reading different Philosophers’ perspectives on the topic. This is because their theories often conflict with one another, which, at first, makes the topic very confusing for a reader; but later pulls the reader into much deeper thinking and appreciation of this…

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Ethical Philosophy: Right and Wrong’s Distinction

The definitions of right and wrong are a fluid subject. Over the course of history and the evolution of human ethics, the concept has undergone significant changes. Many religions around the world are thousands of years old. They have participated in the formation of the society as we know it…

American Exceptionalism and Nation

Introduction A nation is a community characterized by two qualities – its limits and sovereignty. Both qualities usually have official and legal definitions for each particular nation. Also, these qualities, as well as other characteristics of a nation can be its internally perceived and promoted features. Specifically, the American nation…

Freedom in “On Liberty” by John Stuart Mill

Introduction The philosophical work “On Liberty” was written by J. S. Mill in 1859. These are the times of democratic republics’ heyday on the eve of slavery abolition in the US. The main idea centers on the understanding of the concept of individual freedom and the definition of public interference…

Morality and Ethics Concepts

What is Morality? Gert (2011), cites two definitions of morality; the first being descriptive in nature, whereas the second is normative. Descriptive morality refers to some codes of conduct put forward by a society or some other group such as a religion or accepted by an individual through his or…

Human or Humankind: “Oedipus Rex” by Sophocles

The Sphinx had asked Oedipus to crack a riddle, and if he succeeded, she promised to take her own life. The riddle went like this “What goes on four legs in the morning, two in the afternoon and three in the evening?” (Dawe 130). Oedipus responded by saying that the…

“Second Meditation” a Work by Descartes

In the “Second Meditation”, Descartes operates on concepts the core of which seems impossible to doubt. At the beginning of this meditation, he claims that there are no thoughts since he has convinced himself that there is nothing in the world. However, he further comes to a conclusion that he…

Imagination, Illusion and Sublimation in Happiness Achievement

Introduction Happiness as an e ethereal and elusive yet constantly desirable concept has been the object of pursuit since the dawn of humankind. The phenomenon of happiness as a state of being has a special place in Western Philosophy. The subject matter has been explored by Kant, Tocqueville, Du Chatelet,…

Fanon Frantz on Revolution Leaders and Masses

Introduction Revolutions are an integral aspect of political evolution in the society. The success or failure of such a movement is dependent on the conduct and capabilities of the leaders and the masses.1 To this end, it is important to analyze the roles of these two parties with respect to…

Friedrich Nietzsche’s Views on Human and Society

Writer’s Ideas It is paramount to note that there many ways to interpret the section titled “The madman.” The fact that this story can be regarded as provocative should not be overlooked. “God is dead” is a phrase that appears several times in the works of an author, and he…

Personal Worldview: Different Approaches

Introduction Every individual has a personal worldview that he or she uses both consciously and subconsciously to answer questions and make decisions. Spirituality also plays a significant role in one’s life as it guides people and offers them a set of rules and beliefs that construct a specific view of…

Aristotle’s Involvement in Social Issues

Introduction It may seem complicated to penetrate deeper into philosophy as such an endeavor requires people to concentrate on elevated matters while living up to their potential. Some people succeed, while others cannot find answers to philosophical questions even as they mature and continuously pose such conundrums to themselves. However,…

Mind-Body Dualism and Human Nature in Philosophy

Introduction Throughout the ages, people have tried to comprehend the world and understand their own place in this unique system. From the time the ability to think critically and analyze events first appeared, individuals used their brains not only to come up with ways to survive but also to improve…

Alexander Hamilton’s Economic Theory and Philosophy

Alexander Hamilton was the first economist in America who held a principal political figure, but he never managed to become a president in America. There was a great depression in the 1930s where he was allied with the monetary policies in reverence to the American economy that held accountability for…

Happiness as a Way of Living and Perceiving Reality

While discussing the topic of happiness and people’s attitudes to this concept, it is possible to speak about many individuals who view the idea of happiness differently. Thus, happiness can be defined by people in the most unexpected terms because of differences in their visions. It is even possible to…

Courage and Paul Tillich’s Philosophy and Theology

Introduction The category of courage is of keen interest in the fields of ethics, philosophy, and theology. There are many opinions on the subject in the literature, and many of them contradict each other. The topic of this paper is the courage to be, one of the central elements in…

The Theory of Meaning by Patricia Starck

Nowadays quickly changing world sets plenty of challenges for people causing stress and life-changing events. In this connection, the theory of meaning elaborated by Patricia Starck seems to be one of the solutions to overcome the rapid pace of life helping to handle everyday stress. Definition of Theory The middle-range…

Free Will and Determinism: Can They Coexist?

Introduction Through the pleasures and woes of life, humans often find themselves in states of regret, denial, or any of the plethoras of emotions felt after a regrettable or punishable action. One may wonder whether these emotions or reactions are reasonable. That would depend on whether humans are actually in…

Views on Ethics in the “Philosophy. The Power of Ideas”

Compare and evaluate Peter Abelard notion of moral intent with that of Heloise Heloise and Abelard are the typical representatives of the Christianizing Ethics. According to Abelards philosophy, there is a difference between moral defects and other defects, such as bad mental capabilities. He also distinguishes between moral defects and…

Philosophers Views about Reason

Introduction Philosophers such as Aristotle, Kant, and Mill dedicated a lot of their time in understanding reason and its role in day-to-day life. The reason is commonly understood as the power to think about using the human mind. People believe that it is the power to think that sets humans…

Rationalism and Empiricism Controversy

Introduction The controversy between rationalism and empiricism relates to the extent to which human beings depend on sense experience in the process of gaining knowledge. Rationalism is based on the assumption that knowledge is gained without reliance on sense experience (Cushman 86). On the contrary, empiricists argue that sense experience…

Life Meaning in Romantic, Realistic and Modern Era

Introduction This report presents an interview with the main characters of four books written in different periods (romantic, realistic, and modern). The characters are a famous scientist Victor Frankenstein and his monster for Frankenstein by Mary Shelly, Philip Pirrip from Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations, Eliza Doolittle and Henry Higgins from…

Tariq Ramadan’s View on Pluralism

Introduction Pluralism is a theory applied in different ways in philosophy to show that there is more than one substance in the universe. It is the opposite of dualism that holds the idea that there are only two substances within the universe. Monism, on the other hand, supports the idea…

The American Nation as an Imagined Political Community

Introduction The concept of the nation as an imaginary construct that binds people together using tangible beliefs, values, and history was introduced by Benedict Andersen in his book titled “Imagined Communities.” In the USA, the idea of a nation is very strong, as many people associate themselves with the ideals…

Evidentialism vs Non-Evidentialism Debate Exploration

At the root of evidentialism is the principle that one should only ground beliefs on the relevant evidence that one possesses. Clifford, one of the famous proponents of the view, argued that the level of knowledge (the amount of evidence) one has is proportioned to the belief. The philosopher’s view…

Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau Political Theories

Introduction Locke, Hobbes, and Rousseau came up with theories to explain the state of nature in different ways, and this helped shape political philosophy. Understanding the state of nature was important in order to understand how life was before the first government emerged. It also explains the reasons that necessitated…

Culture and Values Role in Societies and Organizations

Introduction Culture refers to a collection of behaviors, traditions, thoughts, ideas, and beliefs that distinguish a society or an organization from another. Culture determines the rules that should govern the way a firm or an organization should operate in a particular environment. Values refer to the central viewpoints that inspire…

“Good Life” From an Ethical Perspective

What is a Good Life? The question of what constitutes a good life was pursuing humanity since the dawn of time. However, as humankind developed and formed societies, the definitions of a good life needed to be assessed, as definitions solely through materialistic possessions were not only inaccurate, but also…

Philosophical Views of Ethics and Morality

Abelard and Heloise’s Notion of Moral Intent The central idea in their arguments was the same. Heloise argued that a wrong deed should not be considered as being against social morality if there were no intent to commit it (Moore & Bruder, 2011). Similarly, Abelard believed that one could only…

Philosophical Framework Based on Kantian Ethics

Philadelphia means the city of brotherly love. Using a rudimentary understanding of Greek language and thought, it is safe to say that philosophy is some sort of love for wisdom. It is my understanding that the passion for knowledge and wisdom inevitably leads to the construction of a personal philosophy,…

Chisholm’s & Goldman’s Internalism and Externalism

Chisholm’s views on the alternatives to internalism In his view, Chisholm seems appears to support the externalism view that “justification of knowledge” depends on a number of factors that are “external to a person”. This argument means that the actions of a person cannot be justified only by determining the…

The Paul Collier’s Liberal Approach Critique

Critique of the Collier’s Liberal Approach Political theorists have espoused liberalism as a political theory and practice that should be adopted by the whole world. Liberalism strikes an appealing chord to people because it tends to offer citizens of a given country total freedom from any kind of oppression since…

Direct Democracy from Rousseau’s Perspective

Introduction Jean-Jacques Rousseau is one of the most recognizable figures of the European Enlightenment. His contributions to political philosophy go beyond theoretical avenue. As an active political activist of his era, Rousseau substantially influenced the French Revolution and further paths of development of ideas in the fields of politics, philosophy,…

Spirituality, Pluralism, Scientism, Postmodernism

Personal worldview inventory Spirituality is a broad term that carries different meanings to different people. First, it means the act of connecting to a supernatural being to find meaning in life. Second, it refers to the establishment of deep connections with concepts such as nature, art, and music. Third, the…

Descartes’ Meditations and Believes

Meditation I. Descartes reflects on numerous deceptions he has believed in, and the ensuing faultiness of the body of knowledge he has developed based on those falsehoods (Descartes Existence of God 17). Consequently, Descartes decides to relinquish the inherent knowledge and develop a new one based on definite foundations. Notably,…

An Evaluation of the Seminal Work of Patricia Benner

Introduction In her article, Altmann (2007) focuses on analyzing Patricia Benner’s influential article “From novice to expert” with the aim of defending its philosophical, rather than theoretical, character. Altmann explains that her purpose is not to diminish the significance of Benner’s work, which is extensively applied in all spheres of…

Socrates’ Metaphors as an Inspiration

Socrates and Plato were always perceived as wise philosophers and changed the perceptions of the society and the insufficiency of the government while underlining the gravity of the principles of good and bad. Socrates’ dialogue with Glaucon about the darkness of the cave and puppet-like nature of the world was…

The Escape of Socrates in Plato’s “Crito”

In Plato’s work Crito, Socrates argues with his friend about the escape from prison. Crito has come to free him, but Socrates does not want to follow his friend’s advice and chooses to stay waiting for his punishment. Both Crito and Socrates present their arguments in support of their ideas….

Personal Worldview Philosophy: Prime Reality

Prime Reality: Definition The concept of prime reality has been discussed countless times by philosophers across the globe, yet no consensus has been reached so far. There are numerous approaches to defining the notion of prime reality; for instance, there is the assumption that God represents it. Other philosophies suggest…

Moral Philosophy: Virtuous Actions and Obligations

What preliminary steps mat be necessary before we can intuitively appreciate the rightness of action? According to Prichard in order to appreciate the rightness of a deed, two preliminary actions should be made. First, it is necessary to distinguish the consequences of the given action more fully than it has…

The Legacy of Ancient Civilizations Philosophy

As a matter of fact, the ancient texts are relevant even for the modern world. It seems that ancient people have known something that is hidden from today’s society. Ideas that are outlined in the ancient texts contain actual information, a unique philosophy that should be taken into consideration and…

Karl Marx’ Philosophical Ideas

Introduction As part of the Marxism theory, the writing by Karl Marx on capital expressed his sentiments on alienation and pain among the lower class workers imprisonment by the private individuals, who have the resources to manipulate and twist social, development, and welfare aspects of the masses in the society,…

Plato’s and Aristotle’s Views on Philosophy

Introduction It is worth noting that the two great philosophers Plato and Aristotle had polar views on the essence and the philosophy in general. Aristotle, unlike his teacher Plato, was interested not so much in the inner essence of the being, the fundamental principle of the world as such, but…

John Locke’s Utopian Ideas on Property

The Age of Enlightenment can be regarded as the epoch when people put reason above all and believed they could explain everything. Importantly, this was also the time when moral (Christian) values were seen as effective doctrines everybody followed without hesitation (Perez, 2012). John Locke is one of the most…

The Ethical Dilemma with the Transplant

Utilitarian and deontological approaches are similar in that they are both used for determining what actions of a human being are either right or wrong. Beyond this determination, the methods are very different: utilitarian (consequentialist) reasoning is associated with judging the consequences of specific actions; however, deontological reasoning determines whether…

Science in Shelley’s “Frankenstein” and Condorcet’s Works

The celebration of human reason in science began in the 18th century. The period was also known as the Enlightenment, and the works and achievements of its brightest representatives such as Luigi Galvani, Voltaire, Erasmus Darwin, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Immanuel Kant changed the lives of millions of people. It was…

US Soldier’s Ethics and Deontology

The perspectives of deontology, deriving from the root meaning duty, and associated with Immanuel Kant and William David Ross, suggest the ethical complexities facing a US soldier. Both thinkers focus on not depending on what one wants to do, but on what one has to do. Although the connection to…

Studying Philosophy and Its Benefits

1. Explain some of the benefits a student may gain by studying philosophy. While studying philosophy, a student can gain a range of benefits because of learning the principles of developing and analyzing the knowledge which can have different sources, including objective and subjective reality. As a result, knowing the…

“Utilitarianism” Essay by John Stuart Mill

Introduction The greatest thinkers living in different periods of human history have always tried to understand the real nature of appropriate and inappropriate things that a person can do. Therefore, there is a range of theories that are devoted only to the ethical norms of modern society or make attempts…

The Common Sense Realism Concept: Thomas Reid Views

Reid, a Scottish philosopher, held that common sense (sensus communis) should be the foundation of all modes of philosophical inquiry. He opposed the view of Hume on the subject (Forguson 23). The latter claimed that it was impossible for people to understand or know the external world since knowledge is…

Philosophy of Social Science and Education Research

Introduction In this section of the book, Nel Noddings (1998) discusses the main philosophical assumptions underlying education research as well as social science. This question is of great importance to scholars who examine the nature of scientific knowledge. The main purpose of this chapter is to show how theoretical views…

Machiavelli: The Man Who Refused to Be the Prince

Introduction Despite having been lauded as an innovator at the time when “the Prince” and “Discourses on Livy” were published, Machiavelli‘s ideas are regarded nowadays as rather dubious, and the author himself is often deemed as the advocate for evil. Although one must credit Niccolò Machiavelli for the creation of…

Kant vs. Fuller: Law and Morality

Introduction The rule of law is a subject of practical philosophy that has always been of high interest to philosophers willing to arrive at principles of pragmatic governance by either separating empirical applications of sets of rules governing human action from the pursuit of ends valuable in the moral sense…

The Toulmin’s vs. the Rogerian Arguments

Introduction Managing dilemmas and addressing conflicts as well as getting involved in any sort of analysis means being able to navigate among the existing options and analyze the arguments provided by each party to define the solution that suits the identified problem best. Traditionally, two types of arguments are used…

Socrates’ Decision to Stay in Prison

Discussion Socrates was imprisoned for corrupting the youth’s minds in Athens as well as defying the gods that the state recognized. Although Socrates’ contemporaries agreed that he had an opportunity to escape, he refused all of them. Socrates’ followers did not want to see their inspiring figure being executed by…

Spiritual Needs Assessment and Reflection

Interview Question: Are you a believer? Answer: I am, very much. I believe in God, and those moments in my life when I doubted his existence were the hardest moments for me. I am not much of a churchgoer because it was never a tradition in my family, and I…

Ten Philosophers Analysis: Their Lives and Contributions

Introduction There are several philosophers who have been studied for years. Their lives and contributions to several aspects of the society are both valued and acknowledged by many people. This essay looks at the contributions of ten influential philosophers of all time. The ten individuals are Karl Marx, John Locke,…

Seneca’s Fall of Man: Causes and Consequences

The phenomenon of the ‘fall of man’ in the Roman philosophy and political thought is related to the ideas declared by Seneca (4 BC – AD 65). Seneca was one of the most prominent Roman stoics whose political vision was opposite to other philosophers belonging to this group (Klosko 174)….

Personhood as a Part of Natural Order

Aristotle referred to human beings as zoon politikon; Hobbes stated that “man is a wolf to man” (De Waal 3). Throughout the course of human history, the greatest thinkers of their times argued about what human nature stands for. As seen from the statements of Hobbes and Aristotle, they were…

Pyrrhonian Scepticism: Arguments and Beliefs

The sceptic philosophy emanated from the ancient sceptics from Greece. Scepticism emanated from the Greek word scepsis, which means investigation. The sceptics saw themselves as investigators (Machuca, Pyrrhonism in Ancient 11). Sceptics did not propose any ideas or beliefs themselves, neither did they dispute the fact that knowledge could be…

Immanuel Kant, David Hume, Friedrich Hegel: Political Discourse

Introduction This paper traces the advancement of political thought via a study of some key writers of political discourse such as Immanuel Kant, David Hume, and Friedrich Hegel. Emanuel Kant was a German philosopher, and he was well known for his enormous contribution towards shaping the modern philosophy. Hume was…

Justice and Happiness in Plato’s “Republic”

Plato’s Republic focuses on the discussion of the meaning of justice and explores a connection between the just man and his happiness providing evidence that supports the notion that inability to do “one’s own business” disrupts a person’s capacity to maintain “the unity of their souls” thereby breaking the link…

Voltaire’s Vision of Religion and Enlightenment

Philosophers and thinkers have always been the main contributors to the evolution of scientific thought and promoted the further evolution of our society. It is impossible to imagine the modern world without the discoveries made by outstanding people. They changed the image of the world and promoted the blistering development…

Personal Worldview, Prime Reality, and Religion

For every particular field of study, prime reality is the concept to explain on the basis of one’s personal feelings, beliefs, and comprehension. For Christian theism representatives, it appears to be a personal God, whose nature is unveiled in the Holy Scriptures. Supporters of postmodernism, however, take a naturalistic approach…

W. Kymlicka on Human Rights and Culture Protection

Introduction The need to ensure every human being enjoys his or her rights has pushed societies to establish institutions that promote the realisation of this goal. Some people argue that evolution has pushed people from living in jungles to civilized societies.1 This essay is an assessment of Will Kymlicka’s argument…

Morality in Kant’s, Mill’s, Aristotle’s Philosophies

Kant’s views about the nature of morality and how it is related to intellect Kant is one of the early philosophers who produced a number of works on human nature. In his talks, Kant described and stipulated on regarding morality depicts rational self-determination as the highest moral value in human…

“A Treatise of Human Nature” by David Hume

A Treatise of Human Nature is a work of David Hume, which was published in three consecutive parts from 1738 to 1740. Hume was a Scottish philosopher who was increasingly fascinated by the study of human knowledge and mind. In A Treatise of Human Nature, Hume attempts to explore the…

Soren Kierkegaard Views on Ethics, Morals and Religion

There is no use denying the fact that humanity has always been affected by such phenomena as ethics, morals, and religion. Going along with society, these notions influenced human beings and introduced some changes to their lives. It should also be said with the increase in the complexity of society….

Personal Worldview, Spirituality and Afterlife

Introduction A personal worldview is an essential thing for any confident person to develop because it identifies his or her attitude towards one’s life and understanding of our environment. All people have different values and goals in their lives, which makes all individuals different and unique. Therefore, the following paper…

Judaism in Steinheim’s and Luzzatto’s Perceptions

The perception of Judaism changed over time. It evolved with the alterations in mainstream philosophies. Nevertheless, some thinkers stood out due to being anti-philosophical and having anti-rational opinions on Judaism. One of the outstanding philosophers was Solomon Ludwig Steinheim. Unlike other philosophers of his time, he did not believe in…

Religion in Marx’s and Nietzsche’s Philosophies

Introduction Religion can be defined as a set of beliefs and practices that explain the relations between people and their God. Every religion is characterized by beliefs and religious practices that all its followers observe. Each religion has its own distinct practices that distinguish it from others (Brenkert 56). The…

Thomas Reid’s Ideas on Common Sense Realism

Thomas Reid strongly believed in the power of common sense. He argued that human beings should not waste their time trying to justify what they perceive because everything in nature is self-evident. He insisted that human beings should just consider the realities in the things they see and stop being…

Genesis and “The Oration on the Dignity of Man”

Genesis inspired a number of philosophers. Pico della Mirandola was influenced by it as well. At the beginning of the speech, the philosopher puts forward the thesis of human greatness, his superiority over all creatures, “man is the intermediary between all creatures, close to the highest and lowest lord over,…

Honor: Traditional Meaning and Broader Definition

Introduction Our society rests on some basic ideas and notions that create the basis for its further rise and evolution. Such unique phenomena as pride, dignity, joy, devotion, etc. are an integral part of our everyday life. They appeared at the very first stages of the evolution of the human…