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Cholera Outbreak in Sierra Leone

In my study, the empirical research problem is cholera outbreak in Sierra Leone. As such, the principal aim of this study is to identify the causes and the extent of the outbreak. The units of analysis will be the prevalence of the disease and population, causes of the outbreak, and the role of poverty in the cholera epidemic. Similarly, the disease’s incidence rate is another unit of analysis. The above units are reasonable units to compare because they will offer the relevant information about the disease in the population. Prevalence will illustrate how widespread cholera is among Sierra Leone’s communities (Callaway, 2014). On the other hand, the incidence rate will indicate the risk of contracting cholera in the country. Researchers should desist from arriving at conclusions based on aggregate data to avoid ecological fallacies. For instance, they should not assume that everyone from Sierra Leone is infected with cholera. Investigators should stop assuming that individual-level conclusions can be described based on individual physiognomies to prevent individual fallacies (Callaway, 2014). For example, the researchers should not assume that cholera outbreak in Sierra Leone has been caused by unhygienic conditions just because patient zero came from a region with poor sanitation.

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The first hypothesis for the study is that the environmental factors have no role in the cholera outbreak in Sierra Leone. The independent variable in the study will be country’s natural environmental factors. On the other hand, dependent variables comprise of all measures put in place to stop and prevent the spread of the disease like building dykes to prevent flooding (Callaway, 2014). The control variables consist of all other features that affect the dependent variables. They include economic incomes, poverty levels, government support, international support, religious beliefs, and Sierra Leone’s culture. During the study, it will be assumed that the control variables remain unchanged throughout the research period. In the study, an inverse connection is expected between the independent and dependent variables. The above imply that positive changes in independent variables like increase in magnitude will result in a decrease in the dependent variable. For instance, appropriate and efficient measures will result in the conducive and healthy environment, which will halt the spread of the disease.

The second hypothesis is that poverty does not play any role in the 2012 cholera outbreak in Sierra Leone. The independent variable in the study will be poverty. Dependent variables will consist of all actions implemented to end extreme poverty and improve the country’s economic activity. They include enhancing the efficiency of institutions, improving education systems, increasing access to healthcare services, empowering women, and fighting corruption (Mahmud, 2014). On the other hand, the control variables consist of all other factors that affect the dependent variable. They include the political will, culture, and religion of Sierra Leone’s population. As indicated above, the study will presume that control variables are constant throughout the research period. Just like in the first hypothesis, an inverse association is expected between independent and dependent variables (Gordis, 2014). For instance, implementation of suitable and effective measures to end extreme poverty will result in the economic empowerment of Sierra Leone’s population.

In the first passage, the author analyzed issues with tobacco smoking in North Carolina. Through the analysis, the author noted that the study is aimed at identifying means of reducing the prevalence in the state. The author pointed out that units of analysis are prevalence and incidence rate. After reading through the passage, I noted that the author should have provided more units of analysis for the reader to comprehend the arguments with ease. For instance, I expected the essay to detail the figures of the individuals affected by tobacco smoking in North Carolina. Through this, the reader could have been able to make a connection between the habit and its effect in the state’s population. Later, the author offered two hypotheses about the study. The hypotheses are perfectly illustrated. As such, the dependent, independent, and control variables are distinctively differentiated. Similarly, the author offers relation among these variables enabling the reader to understand the passage with ease.

The second reading focuses on chronic kidney disease as a global public health issue. In the writing, the author argued that obesity, deprived nutrition, and an absence of physical exercise, diabetes, and hypertension complications are the leading causes of chronic kidney diseases. After reading through the passage, I noted that there is a connection between kidney diseases and cardiovascular ailments. Thus, incorporation of screening approaches for early diagnosis of kidney ailments in the healthcare programs predominantly in the high-risk individuals will result in improved health outcomes. I noted that the author offered several units of analysis. Similarly, the passage provided two hypotheses used in the research. However, unlike the first author the second author did not elucidate on the two hypotheses. Similarly, the second author failed to explain the relation between independent and dependent variables. The author should have offered a comprehensive analysis of the research’s hypothesis for the reader to understand the arguments with ease.


Callaway, E. (2014). Ancient cholera mysteriously disappeared. Nature. 3(1), 323-324.

Gordis, L. (2014). Using epidemiology to identify the causes of disease. In Epidemiology. 6(1),215-229.

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Mahmud, Z. (2014). Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated from the Sierra Leone cholera outbreak in 2012.Transactions Of The Royal Society Of Tropical Medicine And Hygiene, 108(11), 715-720.

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