Civil science remains instrumental in bridging the gap in the acquisition and development of adequate competencies in science education. This learning process allows learners to have first-hand experiences and observations on scientific issues and developments. In this paper, a detailed research study is proposed that can guide schools and policymakers to encourage more learners to be involved in scientific inquiries and begin to collaborate with stakeholders within the education sector. When the relevant resources, opportunities, and tools are put in place, more students will begin to appreciate STEM education and be in a position to realize their potential in life. Similarly, teachers who embrace it will begin to appreciate evidence-based pedagogical procedures that that have the potential to meet their needs and those of their learners. The end result is that the existing social mobility gaps in STEM professions will be bridged.
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The current changes in learning processes are capable of improving the performance of both educators and students. The inclusion of civil science in schools is an evidence-based approach that is capable of maximizing students’ knowledge in science-based subjects. The paper below proposes a study that seeks to examine the current position of civil science in different learning institutions. It goes further to suggest a detailed research design for a study aimed at understanding the issues surrounding the adoption of integrative STEM-based models to improve the competencies of learners in various subjects. The study will be founded on the premise that civil science activities can be redesigned in such a way that they resonate with the existing school programs to add value to the targeted beneficiaries. This proposed research methodology will focus on two different institutions that have adopted divergent approaches regarding the inclusion of civil science to improve the understanding of STEM subjects. The selected research tool is that of T-test since it will ensure that high-quality findings and inferences are presented to the reader. The final document will address the outlined research questions and deliver evidence-based insights for revolutionizing science education and pedagogy of these STEM subjects: science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.
Introduction and Literature Review
The ultimate objective of the learning process is to equip students with superior skills and ideas that can empower them to address most of the predicaments they face and eventually lead high-quality lives. In the recent past, new technologies have emerged that continue to reshape the fields of science education and pedagogy. The emerging concept of civil science is making it possible for more individuals to increase their interests and understanding in various fields. For instance, Kurup, Li, Powell, and Brown (2019) observed that the practice was capable of encouraging young people to increase their engagement in STEM subjects. In different countries, many professionals have managed to reorganize their teaching processes with the aim of empowering their students.
The progression of civil science is attributable to a number of developments, such as the availability of advanced technological devices and apps, the increased acceptance by professionals that members of the public possess relevant competencies, and the desire to increase or maximize the engagement of more members of the community. While the benefits of civil science integration in different fields remain documented, very little is known about its importance and how different stakeholders can introduce it successfully in schools. This paper presents a proposal for a study aimed at understanding how to implement civil science in learning institutions and documenting its efficiency in improving the field of science education and pedagogy of the STEM.
Science education is essential in the learning process since it equips students with valuable competencies that can prepare them for complex situations in their lives. If possible results are to be recorded, the pedagogy of teaching needs to be customized in such a way that it resonates with the changing demands of both the learners and the educators. The available learning environments and interactions between students and their respective teachers should be favorable. A study by Lynch et al. (2017) indicated that STEM education had the potential to present enhanced career options to different learners. However, the study revealed that the number of individuals empowered to participate in such learning procedures were quite limited (Lynch et al., 2017). Using the case of the United States, many schools were focusing on STEM-themed models to address the needs of learners at every level (Kurup et al., 2019). With many people being underrepresented in this country’s history, the concept of STEM-based pedagogy was being seen as a new opportunity for delivering the needed social capital and inspiration to more individuals.
In the Middle East, STEM education has become admirable since it is leading more people to better salaries, economic gains, and personal fulfillment. Aceves-Bueno et al. (2017) observed that STEM subjects had the potential to guide and empower more students to achieve their career objectives much faster. Within the past two decades, professionals in the education sector have been studying and adopting various integrated STEM models. Ruiz-Mallén et al. (2016) observed that many learning organizations had the opportunity to go beyond the normal school space to maximize instruction delivery and record high-quality results. The use of computer technologies was also becoming common in many learning institutions (Cardamone & Lobel, 2016). Students were being guided to develop additional social skills and interact with their teachers in a positive manner. The outcome was that many individuals were happy with the approach and even remained interested in pursued different careers within the STEM bracket.
The use of civil science to engage school students in a number of areas has remained a beneficial practice. Saunders et al. (2018) employed a similar approach to involve learners in various scientific inquires. The completed study acknowledged that civil science was a meaningful tool or strategy for improving students’ scientific knowledge and literacy. This was the case since the beneficiaries remained involved throughout the conducted experiments and studies, thereby becoming conversant with every aspect of the scientific process.
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The enablers of civil science in schools are essential attributes that policymakers, educationists, and leaders have been taking into consideration. According to Cardamone and Lobel (2016), the presence of an autonomous or managerial structure is essential in every learning institution that intends to implement an integrated STEM model. Wallace and Bodzin (2017) went further to identify the importance of a STEM-focused curriculum if desirable results were to be recorded. Additionally, teachers and members of staff should possess the relevant background in STEM to realize the intended objectives (Kang, 2019). While the above arguments explain the unique strategies needed to implement integrated STEM models in learning institutions, an additional research is needed to understand how they can empower and guide more students in the targeted community. The completed study will identify the major approaches for integrating civil science as a powerful tool for encouraging more learners to pursue STEM subjects.
The rationale of the proposed study is to consider the issues surrounding the integration of civil science in various schools. The completed research will present evidence-based approaches for guiding more learners to appreciate STEM subjects while at the same time supporting the implementation of civil science in learning institutions (Kang, 2019). Consequently, the study will become a powerful model for guiding stakeholders to establish more STEM schools and implement meaningful reforms that can address the current social mobility challenges many young people continue to face.
Purpose of Study and Study Questions
In regions were civil science has been incorporated as part of the learning process, more students have become represented in STEM professions than ever before. The absence of appropriate learning environments that can facilitate the development of STEM skills, social capital, and networks affect the ability of learners to succeed in STEM careers. The purpose of the proposed study is, therefore, to analyze the current situation in the targeted community and propose evidence-based approaches for guiding both teachers and students to appreciate civil science whenever pursuing STEM subjects.
These research questions will be used throughout the study period:
- What is the role and importance of civil science in transforming science education and pedagogy of the STEM professions?
- How can civil science be designed and implemented as a superior model for reforming or establishing more STEM schools in Israel?
Methodology and Research
A quantitative comparison study will be conducted to examine the implementation and significance of civil science as a meaningful tool for encouraging learners to appreciate STEM subjects. This means that the targeted research method is that of quantitative study. This will be supported using comparative surveys. The targeted research questions will focus on the application of civil science in learning settings and how it can become an evidence-based model for introducing additional STEM schools. The identified study population will include two schools in the selected region. One of the institutions will be characterized by educators who employ various civil science strategies to equip their learners with skills in STEM while the other one will be a school that uses traditional educational methods. Such a choice will be easy to execute and eventually present high-quality data in a timely manner. From the nature of this model, it is agreeable that the research proposal will examine causation hypotheses. The sampling method will be that of simple random since it will ensure that all participants get equal chances and represent the entire population. Such an approach has been selected since it will minimize chances of bias.
Research Questions and Hypotheses
The first question is whether there is a significant difference between schools that embrace civil science to promote STEM professions and those that do not. The best hypothesis in accordance with this question is that there is no significant difference in the means of the two institutions. The second question is whether teachers embracing civil science to transform learning in STEM subjects record positive results. The hypothesis is that there is no significant difference in the means of the teachers educating learners using civil science and those who do not. With this kind of methodology, the best research tool will be the T-test (Esmaeilian, Rust, Gopalakrishnan, & Behdad, 2018). The reason for selecting it is that it is the best one for analyzing and comparing the above two groups.
Summary, Research Limitations, and Contribution
The presented proposal seeks to sensitize different stakeholders in the field of education about the importance of civil science as a powerful tool for supporting the uptake and understanding of STEM professions. This model has been employed elsewhere to guide both learners and educators to record positive results. After conducting the outlined study, relevant findings will be presented that identify the career level of civil science, the existing gaps, and experiences of different stakeholders (Ceccaroni et al., 2019). These observations will become powerful guidelines for understanding how to design and implement integrated STEM models that are informed by civil science.
Several limitations are capable of affecting the intended research study. For instance, the possible threat to reliability for this project might arise from the selected participants for the study. This challenge will be minimized by ensuring that there is no bias when identifying the right people to be part of the study. Another possible threat to reliability might arise from the researcher. If positive results are to be recorded, it will be necessary to uphold the highest level of professionalism throughout the study process (Kang, 2019). The identifiable threat to volatility might emerge from the investigator’s conclusion. To reduce chances of this problem, it will be essential to ensure that the observed variations are not attributable to other external causes that would not have been captured during the study.
Since ethical aspects tend to arise whenever conducting research studies, research investigators should consider the most appropriate strategies to minimize them in order to deliver meaningful results. The possible issue that might emerge is the inclusion of minors throughout the research. This will be addressed by ensuring that informed consent is obtained from the relevant authorities. The completed research study will be expected to deliver informative concepts and ideas that improve the current knowledge in science education theory. Since very little is known about the best was to integrate civil science in learning environments and empower more learners to pursue STEM subjects, the findings will become powerful guidelines for guiding more policymakers and educators (Cardamone & Lobel, 2016). Additionally, the emerging ideas will transform the nature of pedagogy by outlining desirable technologies, environments, and resources that have the potential to promote scientific skills and literacy.
Aceves-Bueno, E., Adeleye, A. S., Feraud, M., Huang, Y., Tao, M., Yang, Y., & Anderson, S. E. (2017). The accuracy of citizen science data: A quantitative review. Bulletin: Ecological Society of America, 98(4), 278-290. Web.
Cardamone, C., & Lobel, L. (2016). Using citizen science to engage introductory students: From streams to the solar system. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education, 17(1), 117-119. Web.
Ceccaroni, L., Bibby, J., Roger, E., Flemons, P., Michael, K., Fagan, L., & Oliver, J. L. (2019). Opportunities and risks for citizen science in the age of artificial intelligence. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice, 4(1), 1-14. Web.
Esmaeilian, B., Rust, M., Gopalakrishnan, P. K., & Behdad, S. (2018). Use of citizen science to improve student experience in engineering design, manufacturing and sustainability education. Procedia Manufacturing, 26, 1361-1368. Web.
Kang, N. (2019). A review of the effect of integrated STEM or STEAM (science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics) education in South Korea. Asia-Pacific Science Education, 5, 6-27. Web.
Kurup, P. M., Li, X., Powell, G., & Brown, M. (2019). Building future primary teachers’ capacity in STEM: Based on a platform of beliefs, understandings and intentions. International Journal of STEM Education, 6(10), 10-23. Web.
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