Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychology | Free Essay Example

Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychology

Words: 635
Topic: Psychology
Updated:

Difference between generalized and focal brain disorders

Basically, general brain disorders are those that affect the entire part of the brain. Focal brain disorder affects a specific part of the brain due to minor injuries. For instance, when one is injured with a bullet, the damage may be confined in a specific part of the brain (Banich, 2011). General disorders are different from focal disorders in the sense that they cause adverse effects such as pathological ailments and also influence cognitive functions.

What is the Glasgow Coma Scale and how is primarily it used?

This is a scale that is used to examine the functional effects of head injury in a patient (Banich, 2011). In this case, this scale is primarily used to quantify the level of consciousness once a patient’s brain is injured. Glasgow scale is used together with brain injury codes that are used to identify traumas as well as other neurological responses.

What are the characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease?

Alzheimer is a neurological disorder that is characterized by loss of memory, confusion, aggression and irritability. According to Banich (2004), the disease also causes patients to develop communication problems, mood swings and increased weight loss. Notably, there are other symptoms that develop as the disorder deteriorates. These include loss of bodily functions and even loss of long-term memory.

What are the characteristics of Pick’s disease?

This is a form of dementia that is characterized by behavioral changes, marked personality and incoherent communication. Individuals who suffer from this disease portray slight changes in personality. Moreover, basic functions of the body declines. Other characteristics develop as the disease deteriorates.

What is another name for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease?

The other name for Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease is spongiform encephalopathy (Banich, 2011).

What brain area deterioration is associated with Parkinson’s disease? What neurotransmitter is affected?

Parkinson’s disease occurs due to deterioration in the nerves of the brain (Banich, 2011). Notably, the part of the nerves that controls movement often gets damaged and this affects neurotransmissions. Usually, the neurotransmitter that is usually affected is the dopamine and once it is destroyed, an individual is likely to suffer from uncoordinated muscle movement (Banich, 2004).

What is multiple sclerosis and how is it caused?

Multiple sclerosis is a disorder that affects the brain and the spinal cord (Banich, 2011). This disease results into loss of vision, body balance, sensation and muscle control. Notably, the disease is caused by the attack of the body immune system. In this case, the body immune system attacks the normal tissues of the brain and spinal cord.

What sports have been shown to cause closed head injury?

Notably, there are numerous sports that have been proved to cause crossed head injury. Research has shown that football is one of the sports whereby players succumb to head traumas. Other sports include rugby, boxing, hockey, soccer and lacrosse (Banich, 2011). Research has revealed that the effects of sports on players have adverse effects on their cognitive functioning.

What are neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques, and why are they problem?

Neurofibrillary tangles are types of proteins that help to structure the neurons. They exist as twisted filaments within the neurons. On the other hand, amyloid plaques are proteins found in the tissues between the nerve cells (Banich, 2011). Nevertheless, these proteins are harmful especially when they are over synthesized since they damage the neurons, a factor that can cause Alzheimer (Banich, 2004).

What is bradyphrenia?

This is a neurological concept that is used to refer to a condition characterized by slowness of thought (Banich, 2011). It is a common disorder of the brain and is associated with diseases such as Parkinson’s and schizophrenia. Notably, individuals who suffer from the disease manifest slow processing of thought. Consequently, this results into latent responses.

References

Banich, M. (2004). Cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

Banich, M. (2011). Cognitive Neuroscience. Belmont : Wadsworth Publishing, Inc.