Type of Data
A community health assessment can be conducted using different types of data. Primary data is needed to obtain first-hand information that is not biased by the perception of other people. It can be gathered with the help of observations and interviews. Secondary data can be advantageous as well (Brownson, Baker, Deshpande, & Gillespie, 2017). It is already analyzed by professionals and can be found in articles, and reports, etc. All in all, such data should reveal information that is significant for the enhancement of the community’s quality of life. It may be associated with social and cultural structures, access to health services, and other resources available for the population.
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Determination of the Health Care Needs
When a researcher obtains data needed for a community health assessment, he/she identifies what is needed by the population and what is available. Identifying this gap, a professional manages to reveal the healthcare needs of both individuals and the whole community. Thus, it is possible to use the obtained information to develop health-related initiatives that are expected to cause an improvement in the current situation in the future. Focusing on ideal and actual data, a researcher makes it easier to understand the resources needed by the community.
Strategy for Obtaining the Necessary Data
To obtain the needed information, the targeted population should be sampled. In this way, it will be possible to make it a representation of the whole. It is possible to gather the focus groups that consist of 5-10 individuals and select a moderator who will gather all the needed information so that it can be used in the study. A moderator will control group activities, ensuring that all key issues are addressed. In addition to that, it is possible to collect data using community forums. This option is rather advantageous because people gather at forums to discuss health needs, which makes them willing to share this information with a researcher (Morris et al., 2014). Finally, surveys can be conducted. The targeted population is expected to answer a set of questions.
Factors that Impact the Health and Wellness of a Community
Numerous factors affect the well-being of a community. For instance, the social-demographic characteristics of the population influence its health risks and access to healthcare services. The age of individuals from the community, people who have good access to needed resources, the number of persons with a high level of education, the unemployment rate, etc. The health status of society also matters. It deals with the rates of infant mortality, unnatural causes of death, adolescent pregnancies, etc. Health risk factors, such as vaccination and obesity, may be associated with numerous health problems.
Ways to Obtain Information
Required information will be obtained using qualitative research methods, such as questionnaires or literature review. It can be advantageous to consider the history of the community health because it can reveal vital tendencies associated with the improvement of health status or the development of new issues. Quantitative approaches can be useful as well. In particular, they can make it possible to compare the effects of different community programs on health. In addition to that, they can reveal the community’s attitudes regarding some issues.
Validity and Reliability
It is vital to ensure that the data used in the research study is valid and reliable (Meeker & Escobar, 2014). Dependency and consistency of data can be revealed with the help of the reliability coefficient. For instance, with the help of test-retest reliability, a researcher can state how stable measured elements are. The alternate form reliability can make it possible to see if the same results can be obtained with the help of other tests. Criterion-related validation will be used to reveal statistical relations between variables. Content-related validation is needed to prove that the provided information is representative of the targeted community.
Brownson, R. C., Baker, E. A., Deshpande, A. D., & Gillespie, K. N. (2017). Evidence-based public health. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
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Meeker, W. Q., & Escobar, L. A. (2014). Statistical methods for reliability data. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Morris, J. N., Howard, E. P., Fries, B. E., Berkowitz, R., Goldman, B., & David, D. (2014). Using the community health assessment to screen for continued driving. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 63, 104-110.